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Washrnoton DC 




Official National Park Guidebook 



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ndbook 102 




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A Traveler's Guide to the 
District of Columbia 
and Nearby Attractions 



Produced by the 
Division of Publications 
National Park Service 



U.S. Department of the Interior 
Washington, D.C. 1989 



Using This Handbook 

Besides being the seat of the U.S. Government, Wash- 
ington, D.C., is the home of many of the Nation's 
major monuments and memorials. The National Park 
Service is entrusted with the care and interpretation 
of most of these cultural treasures and symbols and, 
beyond that, with the cultivation and tending of most 
of the city's parks and flower gardens. This hand- 
book is published in support of the Park Service's 
management policies and interpretive programs in 
the National Capital Region, which includes Wash- 
ington and sites in nearby Virginia, Maryland, and 
West Virginia. Part 1 of the handbook introduces 
Washington through the eyes of an adopted son from 
England, writer Henry Fairlie. Part 2 consists of gaz- 
etteer descriptions and illustrations of the major sites 
in the city and environs. Part 3 provides a thematic 
sampler of some obvious and not so obvious aspects 
of Washington and the nearby area. 



National Park Handbooks, compact introductions to 
the great natural and historic places administered by 
the National Park Service, are designed to promote 
understanding and enjoyment of the parks. Each is 
intended to be informative reading and a useful guide 
before, during, and after a park visit. More than 100 
titles are in print. They are sold at parks and can be 
purchased by mail from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, DC 20402. This is Handbook 102. 



Parti 



A City of Symbolic Gems 4 

Welcome to Your Washington 7 
By Henry Fairlie 



Part 2 



Gazetteer for Travelers 36 

We're Here to Help You 38 
Tips for Travelers 40 
Getting Around the City 42 
Using This Gazetteer 44 
Downtown East, Map and Sites 46 
Downtown West, Map and Sites 80 
Metropolitan Area, Map and Sites 104 
Beyond Downtown 106 
Nearby Maryland 118 
Nearby Virginia 124 



Parts 



Washington Sampler and Adviser 

Join the Celebration 138 

Think Thematically 140 

Roral Vistas 142 

Water, Bronze, and Stone 144 

The Performing Arts 148 

Small and Multifarious Museums 150 
> Fun for Kids 152 
'* International Washington 154 

Regional Side Trips, Map and Sites 158 
^ Maryland and West Virginia 160 
irginia 162 

Philadelphia and Independence 164 

Civil War Sites 166 



136 



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Index 170 




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ACity of Symbolic Gems 




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Welcome to Your Washington 

By Henry Fairlie 



As seen from above, the grids 
of Pierre L 'Enfant 's Plan 
for Washington, D.C., are 
evident in Freedom Plaza. 
Prominent to the east, down 
Pennsylvania Avenue, are the 
Old Post Office Tower and 
the U.S. Capitol. 
Cover and pages 2-3: Despite 
the near-constant activity in- 
side, the White House enclave 
presents a scene of serenity 
and beauty at any season. 
Pages 4-5: The afternoon sun 
highlights details of the Capi- 
tol dome. 



Washington is your city, wherever in the country you 
come from. If you come from abroad, you may also 
feel it is your city, for as the capital of the free world, 
the White House is now better known around the 
globe than the palaces of Europe. 

Washington is a city of monuments and imposing 
buildings. It was laid out to be a city of grandeur. 
But it has miraculously kept a human scale. In this 
it represents the politics of a Nation in which the 
ordinary people are the source of power and have 
the final say. Even the formal stretch of the Mall, 
which might be as stiff as an avenue at Versailles, is 
used by the people of Washington as a playground. 
On summer evenings after work there may be several 
games of softball being played from the Capitol to 
the Washington Monument. And in early summer 
thousands come to the Mall for the annual Folklife 
Festival celebrating America's cultural diversity. 

It is partly the green of the city that keeps the 
human scale — the Mall itself; the beautifully kept 
Capitol grounds; the National Arboretum, with one 
long high bank in spring that is a joy of brilliant 
azaleas among white lacy dogwoods; Dumbarton 
Oaks Gardens, formal, terraced, and landscaped, but 
falling to the wildness of Rock Creek Park; and next 
to them, Montrose Park, another playground of the 
people of the city. 

Then there is the long reach of green along the 
Potomac, where the Mall and its monuments and 
museums give way to yet another playground, where 
the fishermen fish, the joggers pound, the picnickers 
picnic, the bikers ride, the walkers stroll, the sailors 
sail, and in summer you may even watch the mysteri- 
ous game of cricket played by Englishmen who live 
here. The George Washington Memorial Parkway 
makes all this readily available on the west side of 
the Potomac, too. 

Above all, Washington is a city in the woods. Again 
and again, you will find the skyline covered with 



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The Supreme Court building trees. You can Stand on the Virginia side of the 14th 
exemplifies the capital city 's Street bridge and look up to the tower of Washington 

Cathedral, several miles away, rising on its high hill 
with trees clustered round it. 

Running through the city is Rock Creek Park, of 
which Lord Bryce, a British ambassador some 80 
years ago, asked in wonderment: "In what other city 
in the world can you walk in ten minutes into the 
middle of a glen?" The busy thoroughfare that now 
runs its length has hardly changed that aspect. 

All of this and more is the backdrop to the capital 
city, and you should keep reminding yourself to notice 
it. Not only does the green soften the hard edges of 
what might otherwise be too monumental a city, it 
also helps to create an atmosphere that subdues 
temptations to the arrogance of power. Neither the 
old palaces of Europe nor the Kremlin today display 
any of the informality that is created by this green. 

The people who exercise power and serve it are 
affected by this ease in their surroundings. Some of 
the residential districts, so close to the center of the 
city, are like garden suburbs: Cleveland Park, the 
area around Foxhall Road, and Spring Valley, which 
in spring lives up to its name. Across some of the 
streets of Georgetown the high old trees meet over- 
head like the nave of a cathedral. I know no great 
city in the world that is lovelier in the spring. 

If you can spare the time, I suggest you visit Theo- 
dore Roosevelt Island, in the Potomac on the edge 
of the city. There used to be a ferry to it, but now 
you cross to it by a footbridge from the Virginia side. 
Since Teddy Roosevelt was the first President to really 
care about the environment and conservation, it was 
decided to keep the island in its natural state as a 
memorial to him. If a tree falls, it is left to rot as it 
would in nature; where the ground is swampy, low 
down by the river, it is left swampy. You can walk 
around the island not knowing you are near the heart 
of a great city. 

When you spread out a map of Washington for the 
first time, take a moment to grasp the original design, 
not least the great avenues that drive diagonally across 
the regular grid, all with the names of states. UEnf ant's 
design was not fully carried through, but his stamp 
on the city still remains. The avenues are infuriating 
to cab drivers, because they keep interrupting the 
regular streets, so that a few blocks of a street can 



National Park Service rang- 
ers greet a group of school- 
children visiting the Jefferson 
Memorial. 

Pages 12-13: Downriver from 
Georgetown and opposite the 
Kennedy Center, Theodore 
Roosevelt Island sits as a 
woodland oasis in the 
Potomac River. 



pop up somewhere, to disappear again, and reemerge 
miles away for another couple of blocks. 

They can also be infuriating to the visitor, especially 
where avenues meet Washington's famous circles with 
their statues. There are ten exits from Dupont Circle, 
and horrifying stories are told of tourists who get 
into the wrong lane, can't get out of it, and just drive 
round in an increasing frenzy until they are quietly 
carried off. 

One of the common jokes about Washington is 
that it was built on a swamp. The site was chosen to 
circumvent the strong claims of several states to be 
the home of the capital. But on this swampy place 
the real vision of UEnfant was to lay out a city that 
could grow comfortably as the small early Republic 
expanded in territory, prosperity, and power "to any 
period however remote." The open feeling of the 
city today is a tribute to his foresight. 

So Washington has indeed grown by leaps as the 
Nation's role in the world has expanded and the 
responsibilities of the Federal Government in a com- 
plicated modern society have increased. It grew most 
dramatically during the First World War, the New 
Deal, and the Second World War, and since then it 
has continued its growth. The most recent develop- 
ment is that Washington has become something of a 
business and financial center as well, partly because 
of the number of trade associations with their head- 
quarters here, and partly because of the growth of 
the high-tech companies in the encircling suburbs. 

You and your camera will know what you want to 
see. But as an Englishman who grew quickly to love 
the city when I first visited it many years ago, and 
who has made it his home, I may be able to whisper a 
few things in your ear as you set out to find your 
capital. 

Bear in mind that, apart from the Mall, one main 
thoroughfare was meant to join the Capitol and the 
White House. This is Pennsylvania Avenue. It was 
intended to be the symbol of the separation of powers, 
the executive and legislative branches of government, 
under the Constitution, and also of their joining in 
mutual understanding and cooperation. But because 
of one of the corruptions of L'Enf ant's design, there 
is a kink in Pennsylvania Avenue where the route 
turns up 15th Street NW for one block past the Trea- 
sury. You are certain to end up there, so take it as 



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city, if not the Nation. 



yet another symbol, this time of the occasions when The Great Hall in the Library 
the cooperation between Congress and the President of Congress is one of the most 

, 1 J magnificent rooms in the 

breaks down. „.-,.* .v.,„, ,,_ a;„..„„ 

While you are at the Capitol, perhaps visiting your 
senators or congressman, also remember that it is 
here that the inauguration of the President takes 
place. The Chief Executive and Commander-in-Chief 
is confirmed in office, not in his Executive Mansion, 
but beneath the dome where sit the representatives 
of "You, the People." 

You will probably find for yourself, like many 
visitors before you, that the loveliest view of the 
Capitol is from the Neptune Terrace of the Library 
of Congress, to which you will climb to enter the 
Library by its main doors. The grandeur of the build- 
ing glimpsed between the trees of the Capitol grounds 
will catch your breath. For two centuries the hopes 
that a free people may govern themselves have 
centered on that dome. 

The Library of Congress is not a branch of govern- 
ment. But it could well be, considering all the services 
it supplies to the three branches, as well as to countless 
other people. It is certainly one place, besides the 
White House, where you should take the official 
guided tour. The Library's activities and possessions 
are so numerous and fascinating that time is well 
spent hearing about them. 

But there is again something specially American 
about the Library of Congress. When I first used it, I 
was accustomed to its equivalent in Britain, the British 
Museum Library, where you needed a testimonial 
proving you were a bona fide scholar. But not in the 
Library of Congress. It is the national library of a 
democracy. College students can and do use it on 
the same terms as the most serious scholars. 

Next to the Library on 1st Street is the Supreme 
Court, the home of the third branch of government. 
In design it is like a temple of justice. This is wholly 
fitting to the grand theme of the Nation's Capital — 
the government of a free people— and to the exalted 
place given to the Constitution in the Nation's life. It 
is worth remembering that this lofty building was 
constructed during the Great Depression: there is 
something humanizing in the fact that the construction 
of this temple of the supreme law of the land gave 
work to unemployed Americans just as many public 
buildings were put up in your towns and cities. 

14 




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Pierce Mill, in Rock Creek Among the museums of the Mall there is something 

Park, recalls an earlier time f^j. everybody, again free to the people of a democracy. 

when hundreds of nulls pro- w -n u -^ i u u r .u u 

^ ^ n ■ 1/1/ L ■ i ou Will be struck by how many ot them are run by 

duced flour in Washington i o • i • t • • 

and the surrounding area. the Smithsonian Institution, and even they are only 

part of the amazing range of its activities. There is 
nothing like the Smithsonian anywhere else in the 
world. It is all the more remarkable therefore that 
the original endowment was bequeathed by a James 
Smithson of London, the illegitimate son of a duke 
of Northumberland who never even visited America 
before he died in 1829. 

That Smithson looked to America with such opti- 
mism tells us something of the high hopes the world 
had of the young Republic, and since he, as an 
illegitimate child, could not succeed to his father's 
title, we can only believe that he saw in America a 
more tolerant country, free of the confinements of 
class. 

America was a breath of fresh air to the Old World 
then. A hundred years later another fresh breeze was 
carried by the Spirit of St. Louis. Stand in front of it 
in the National Air and Space Museum. It looks as if 
it is held together by string; it has a wicker chair in 
the cockpit. Yet Lindbergh made not only America 
but the whole of Europe gasp. After the fearful 
devastation of the First World War, and the disillu- 
sionment that followed it, this young and confident 
man seemed to be the promise of the New World 
arriving miraculously on the wind. 

When you come to the Washington Monument 
with its circle of 50 Stars and Stripes, one for each 
state, which sometimes crack like rifle shots when 
they whip in a stiff breeze, try to imagine the rising 
ground and Ellipse below it on the Fourth of July, 
when families of all races, native-born and immigrants 
alike, picnic in the evening as they wait for the fire- 
works to begin. 

Beyond is the White House. To an Englishman 
used to Buckingham Palace, and the even grander 
palaces of Europe, it hardly seems the home of a 
head of state at all, but more like the unboastful 
mansion of a country gentleman. In this, like the 
modest inauguration ceremony, or the unwigged, 
black-robed justices of the Supreme Court, it fits the 
character of the Nation's democracy. It remains very 
much the house of "We, the People" whoever 
temporarily occupies it. 

17 






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In Lafayette Park. Andrew 
Jackson salutes his troops. 
This monument was the first 
equestrian statue cast in the 
United States. 

Pages 20-21 : Sun and shadows 
accentuate the angular, mod- 
ern lines of the National Gal- 
lery of Art East Building. 



Across the street in the center of Lafayette Park is 
one of Washington's many statues. You might assume 
it is Lafayette, but no, he has a statue on one of the 
corners. Then surely it must be one of the Presidents 
on whom every President looks out. But which can it 
be? Look again. The horse is rearing and the figure is 
doffing his tricorn hat to the imaginary crowd as he 
easily keeps his seat. Take a guess. Why, it is Andy 
Jackson, truly the first people's President. 

These are only a few examples of how rich Wash- 
ington is in symbolism. Even the imposing buildings 
of Washington speak of the character of the most 
successful popular government the world has known. 
They say in a hundred ways that this is your city, as it 
is your Constitution, your Congress, your courts, and 
your President. 

Then there is the rest. If Washington is not a center 
of contemporary culture like New York and Los 
Angeles, it is, as a capital should be, a treasure house 
of the traditional culture, including the whole past 
culture of Western civilization. The spirited new East 
Building of the National Gallery of Art should not 
prevent you from going to the grander original build- 
ing, which houses, among other priceless works, one 
of the world's great collections of the old Italian 
masters and a roomful of Rembrandts that could 
itself hold you for hours. Then there are the gems 
the visitor finds all over Washington: the Folger 
Library, for example, one of the world's centers of 
Shakespearean studies, where Shakespeare is still 
performed on a reproduced Elizabethan stage; the 
Phillips Collection, the loveliest, warmest, most 
intimate small gallery I know in the world; the won- 
derful collection of pre-Columbian art at Dumbarton 
Oaks, housed in one of the most exquisite new 
buildings in the city; the lively summer concerts by 
the armed forces bands; the campuses of several 
universities and colleges tucked into various parts of 
the city; the many magnificent churches, including 
the massive Washington Cathedral which has been 
almost as long in the building as the great cathedrals 
of Europe; the nearly hidden beginning of the 185-mile 
C&O Canal in Georgetown. 

Beyond the District's boundaries but easily acces- 
sible is still more. Nothing is more moving, or perhaps 
closer to the heart of the Nation, than Arlington 
National Cemetery, with the graves of John F. Kennedy 



19 





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Students enjoy a sunny day 
at Georgetown University. 
Academic life flourishes here, 
for the Washington area 's 
many universities and col- 
leges attract students from 
across the United States and 
abroad. 



and his brother Robert F. Kennedy and with Arlington 
House, the old Custis-Lee mansion, overlooking the 
city. But it is the ranks and ranks of plain headstones, 
the graves of the unfamous, the unsung dead of the 
wars fought to keep America free, that are the reason 
you should go there. And if you stand at the top of 
the steep hill and look down over the headstones, 
your eyes will fall first and with some irony on the 
fortress of the Pentagon. 

There is Mount Vernon, so easy to reach, and 
again it is the modesty of the home that is striking. 
This man who twice saved his country, as soldier and 
then as statesman, who set it securely on its path to 
freedom and not monarchy or dictatorship, lived in 
this home he loved, but left so often, the simple life 
of a country gentleman. Georgetown with its red- 
bricked streets may be within the District, but historic 
Alexandria lies just over the river in Virginia. In the 
surrounding countryside of Virginia are the reminders 
of the colony that contributed four of the first five 
Presidents of the United States. Within an easy drive 
is one of the smaller but still gracious colonial man- 
sions, the home of George Mason, the father of the 
Bill of Rights. 

In Virginia, Maryland, and nearby West Virginia 
are many Civil War sites— Antietam, Manassas, 
Fredericksburg, Harpers Ferry — and you may easily 
in a day thrust into Pennsylvania to the battlefield of 
Gettysburg where as you look on the rugged ground 
you can well imagine the terrible savagery of the 
fighting. 

Also well within reach is Annapolis with its old 
Colonial streets and wharfs and the splendid campus 
of the Naval Academy, and there you are also at the 
great opening expanse of the Chesapeake Bay, with 
the thrill — but not in the traffic at the end of a 
holiday — of crossing its great bridge. There are even 
Washingtonians who go for the day by car or train to 
Baltimore, a city and port rich in character and history. 
Some drive there at night, as even a tourist may wish 
to do, to see the Orioles, who are loved by their fans 
whether they win or lose at baseball. 

All the time on your visit to the Nation's Capital 
you will be largely in the care of the National Park 
Service. I have wondered at the dedication and skill 
of the Park Service when Tve been on the top of the 
Rockies in the cold wind on a midsummer's day. The 



23 



discreet notices of the Park Service along the trail to 
the top of one mountain give you all the information 
you want about the ecology and the necessary warning 
that it is so fragile in such a harsh environment that 
even if you just stray from the trail, perhaps first 
beaten by Indians, you might damage it. 

The activity of that same National Park Service in 
Washington and surrounding Virginia and Maryland 
is equally remarkable. It manages the major tourist 
sites, including the Mall and the Ellipse. It looks 
after much of the green of Washington, the many 
flower beds and plots of grass that are like a hundred 
lungs for the city. It takes care of the building, fur- 
nishings, and grounds of the White House; maintains 
the John F. Kennedy and Wolf Trap Farm Park per- 
forming arts centers; it keeps the Theodore Roosevelt 
Island I have mentioned — and appropriately so, for 
the National Park Service was established in 1916 
largely due to his earlier initiatives. 

So one could go on; the Vietnam Veterans Memorial 
is only one of the most recent National Park System 
sites that fill this guide. But I may be allowed to say 
that I know no similar service in any country in the 
world that undertakes the responsibility for so many 
and such a wide variety of places, from coast to coast, 
with such attention to both maintaining the integrity 
of the sites and making welcome the more than 200 
million people of the American democracy. 

If you go to Theodore Roosevelt Island, there is a 
stone memorial to T.R., and as befits the man it is 
monumental. The great slabs of stone carry quotations 
from some of his speeches. Read them, even photo- 
graph them, they are inspiring. When you go to the 
absolutely perfect memorial to Abraham Lincoln, 
read the quotations from his speeches as well. Even 
read them aloud, especially the passage from his 
Second Inaugural about binding the wounds of the 
Nation. At the end of one Thanksgiving evening with 
some Americans, we all clambered into a car, drove 
by the floodlit monuments of Washington at night— 
you should do that as well — and at the Lincoln 
Memorial, one of the Americans said to me, "You 
read that aloud." I did, and at the end we all were 
silent. Silent but unembarrassed to belong to a Nation 
to which a self-taught boy could speak the soul of 
America across the years. I relate that incident only 
to ask you to keep your eyes up and open wherever 



Pershing Park, located in 
front of the restored WiUard 
Hotel near the main business 
district, is one of the city 's 
many havens of greenery 
maintained by the National 
Park Service. 
Pages 26-27: Amidst the 
hustle and bustle of Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, three travel- 
ers from abroad relax for a 
few moments in Pershing 
Park 's quietude. 
Pages 28-29: The Jefferson 
Memorial reflects the archi- 
tectural tastes of the man it 
honors. Drafter of the Decla- 
ration of Independence and 
third U.S. President, Thomas 
Jefferson played a leading 
role in the creation of the 
federal city. 



24 




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The Reflecting Pool embel- 
lishes an autumn sunset at 
Lincoln Memorial. 
Pages 32-33: At the National 
Archives, the Nation 's impor- 
tant documents are on display 
for all to see. 



you go in this city. There are so many small things to 
notice. Read the inscriptions above the two entrances 
to the National Archives and read the inscriptions at 
the main entrance to the Smithsonian's National 
Museum of American History. 

Look at the busts above the main entrance to the 
Library of Congress, and then the names of the writers, 
philosophers, and scientists round the magnificent 
ceiling of its main lobby. Look even at the lamps 
outside the Library; you'll rarely see street lamps so 
beautiful or fanciful. Look at the spouting fountain 
that gives the Neptune Terrace its name, and look at 
the many other fountains in the city. Look at the 
statues, many of them on the circles, but not all; you 
will find Longfellow brooding among the swirling 
traffic at M and Connecticut. 

And in the end you will come back to three pieces 
of paper. When I was first taken to the National 
Archives by an American, it was with awe that I 
joked that the Declaration of Independence, the 
Constitution, and the Bill of Rights seemed to be set 
out as if they were on an altar. So they are. So they 
should be. No other nation in the beginning put so 
much trust in three pieces of paper. No other three 
pieces of paper have through 200 testing years so 
proved they deserved that trust. That these documents 
are not dead but alive is what everything you see in 
Washington is telling you — and, through you, the 
rest of the world. Why do the immigrants, of whom 
Washington has its share, still come? For the same 
reasons your ancestors, many of whom were immi- 
grants, once came. 

Come down Massachusetts Avenue from Wash- 
ington Cathedral, past all the embassies of the world, 
and remember how small a country of merchants 
and farmers started this experiment in democracy 
more than two centuries ago. It is a capital of which 
any American can be proud. As I have noticed every 
spring and summer, the tourists are indeed proud, 
proud even of the efficiency, cleanness, and dignity 
of the Metro subway. That Washingtonians keep the 
stations and the cars so clean says something of their 
own pride in their city. In a way, we keep this city for 
you, and we like it when you come. In summer I like 
to walk along the Mall and look at the license plates 
of the cars and campers. They seem to come from 
every state of the Union. And I like to look at the 



31 




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families who arrive in these cars and campers mak- 
ing what might be their once-in-a-Hfetime pilgrimage 
to the Nation's Capital. Their diversity is truly 
remarkable, and yet they all are sharing a common 
trek, a visit to the memorials, monuments, and other 
traditional landmarks that unite them as one people. 
Tourism may be business in most places, but in 
Washington, it is more than that. Here, tourism is 
also the spirited enjoyment with which you come to 
see the city, and your enjoyment invigorates us as we 
go about our day-to-day chores. 

Let me leave you with one last thought. The 
American artist Georgia O'Keeffe said that perhaps 
we will never again build cities as lovely as Venice or 
Rorence. But they are now, she said, only conversa- 
tion pieces. The life is in the cities of America. The 
wonder of Washington is that, artificially created as 
a capital, there is nothing artificial about it. It has 
grown with the Nation in response to the same 
impulses. I believe you will at once feel at home in it. 
For it is yours. 



Washington is a city of cele- 
brations, and most splendifer- 
ous of all is the Fourth of July 
fireworks show on the Wash- 
ington Monument grounds. 



34 







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We're Here to Help You 



Washington, in all its splendor and variety, welcomes 
you whether you are here for a day, a week, or longer. 
The city's attractions are so numerous that you will 
be challenged by the choices you have to make. 
Nearly every visitor first wants to see the Nation's 
primary symbols— the Capitol, the White House, and 
the Supreme Court— and to tour the National Mall 
with its well-known museums and landmarks. 

At these places you will find a familiar face and 
friendly hand, for most of the monuments, memori- 
als, and parks in the Nation's Capital are maintained 
and managed by the very same National Park Ser- 
vice that has come to be identified with the country's 
natural, historical, and recreational wonders: Yellow- 
stone, Grand Canyon, and nearly 340 other sites. In 
fact, many of Washington's parks are among the Na- 
tion's oldest, for they date from the District of Co- 
lumbia's establishment in 1790. 

Besides the memorials and monuments, the Na- 
tional Park Service manages many small and lesser- 
known sites here ranging from Old Stone House in 
Georgetown to Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens on the 
banks of the Anacostia River. Wherever you travel, 
you will meet and be met by the men and women of 
the National Park Service in their familiar uniforms. 
They are taking care of these parks and monuments 
and helping travelers like yourself in the tradition of 
the National Park Service, so do not hesitate to ask 
these park rangers, maintenance workers, and 
mounted park policemen for assistance. They will 
do all they can to answer your questions and to help 
you make the most of your visit. The following gaz- 
etteer, packed with details about the Washington 
area's major sites, is offered with that same friendly 
spirit. Use it as your guide. 




Washington-Dulles International Airport and Union Station 




More than 18 million tourists 
come to Washington each 
year. That's a lot of people, 
but the facilities for providing 
travel information to these 
people and for answering their 
questions are numerous and 
widespread. 

Each major airport, such 
as Washington-Dulles Interna- 
tional (above) where many 
visitors arrive, has trained 
staff members on hand to deal 
with travelers' problems. 

The National Park Service 
staffs two kiosks— on the El- 
lipse and near the Vietnam Vet- 
erans Memorial — that are open 
all year to provide information 
and to help visitors. Other 
kiosks are open seasonally. 

The International Visitors 
Information Ser\ ice (IVIS), 
Suite 300,733 15th Street, NW, 
provides brochures and infor- 
mation on accommodations 
and the highlights of the city; 
783-6540. 



The Washington Convention 
and Visitors Association, 1575 
I Street, NW, operates an infor- 
mation center at 1455 Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, NW; 789-7000. 

Climate 

Washington has four distinct 
seasons. Spring is beautiful and 
alive with the fresh greens and 
bright colors of blooming flow- 
ers and shrubs. Summer is hot, 
humid, and often hazy. Fall may 
bring the nicest weather with 
bright sunny days and cool 
northwest breezes. Winter is 
usually cold and damp with sev- 
eral storms and at least one 
major snowfall that can turn 
this northernmost of southern 
cities into quite a mess. 

Crossing State Lines 

The Washington Metropolitan 
Area spreads into two states, 
Maryland and Virginia, besides 
taking up all of the District of 
Columbia. This means that the 



sales tax rate differs, that street 
and directional signs vary, and 
that local regulations are 
different. 

Access for the Disabled 

Many sites and programs in 
metropolitan Washington, 
D.C., are accessible to the dis- 
abled. Tourmobile Sightseeing 
Services offers an accessible 
van available on 24-hour 
notice; call 554-7020. For infor- 
mation on accessibility and for 
a list of TDD numbers, call 
426-5264 (TDD) or 426-6770 
(voice). For information about 
the Smithsonian, check with 
the Office of Education, 
357-1697 (voice), 357-1696 
(TDD). 

Airports 

The Washington area is served 
by three major airports. Wash- 
ington National, for domestic 
flights, is located on the banks 
of the Potomac, near Alexan- 



Af\ 





dria, Virginia, a short Metro- 
rail ride from downtown. 
Washington-Dulles Inter- 
national , 27 miles west in 
Virginia, and Baltimore- 
Washington International, 20 
miles northeast toward Balti- 
more, have both domestic 
and international flights. 
Shuttle buses operate to all 
three airports from major 
hotels and motels downtown 
and in the suburbs. 



Trains 

Amtrak serves Union Station 
(above) on Capitol Hill with 
trains to and from cities all 
over the Nation. The Mary- 
land Department of Transpor- 
tation operates commuter 
trains from the station. 

Interstate Buses 

Greyhound/Trailways Bus 
Lines serves the city from a sta- 
tion at 1005 1st Street, NE. 



Theater Tickets 

Tickets are available at each 
theater box office and through 
Ticketron, which accepts 
orders over the telephone. 
Ticketplace provides day-of- 
performance tickets, when 
available, at half price from a 
booth on the F Street Plaza 
between 12th and 13th Streets, 
NW. Payment must be in cash. 
(See The Performing Arts, 
pages 148-49.) 

Spectator Sports 

For years tickets for the Wash- 
ington Redskins home games 
have been sold out, so televi- 
sion is your only resort if you 
do not have a friend with tick- 
ets. Tickets for the Bullets, the 
professional basketball team, 
and the Capitals, the profes- 
sional hockey team, are not as 
hard to come by, but they are 
in great demand. The closest 
major league baseball team is 
the Orioles in Baltimore. 



41 



National Airport Metro Station and Tourmobile 




Planning your excursions 
around Washington can be an 
important part of your visit , for 
parking is often difficult and 
can be very frustrating, espe- 
cially on hot, summer days. 
The District of Columbia 
police do not hesitate to give 
tickets— the penalties are high 
for parking violations, and 
offenders may have cars towed. 
You might consider parking 
your car in the suburbs and 
taking public transportation 
downtown. When you leave 
your car, either take valuables 
with you or leave them locked 
in your trunk. Alternatives to 
using your car in the down- 
town area are outlined on 
these two pages, and you may 
wish to consider one or more 
of them before you begin your 
excursion. 

How the City Is Laid Out 

First off, you should know that 
Washington is divided into four 



parts: Northwest, Northeast, 
Southeast, and Southwest. 
North Capitol, East Capitol, 
and South Capitol Streets and 
the Mall to the west divide the 
city into these quadrants (see 
map on pages 46-47). East- west 
streets carry the letters of the 
alphabet in alphabetical order 
as they move away from the 
center. There are no B,J,X,Y, 
or Z Streets. After W Street 
come two-syllable names, again 
in alphabetical order. They are 
followed by three syllable 
names, and finally at the fur- 
thest extreme of the city are 
streets named for plants and 
trees. North-south streets are 
simply numbered, again begin- 
ning at the center. Since there 
is, for example, a 4th Street in 
each quadrant, make sure you 
check whether the address is 
followed by NW,NE,SE, or 
SW. But that's not the end of 
it. What jumbles this system 
are the avenues, drives, and 



streets— named after all the 
states except Washington — 
that crisscross the city, dis- 
rupting the grid and creating 
oddly shaped intersections. 

Subways and Buses 

The Washington Metropolitan 
Area Transit Authority, known 
locally as Metro, operates the 
subways and buses. Metro- 
rail — the subway — serves 
more than 60 stations at pres- 
ent and, besides crisscrossing 
the downtown, extends into the 
Maryland and Virginia suburbs. 
All stations— identified by a 
pylon topped with an "M" — 
and trains are accessible for 
handicapped persons in wheel- 
chairs. Metrorail operates 
5:30 a.m. to midnight Monday 
through Friday, 8 a.m. to mid- 
night on Saturday, and 10 a.m. 
to midnight on Sunday. You 
need a farecard to ride the 
subway, and these can be pur- 
chased from machines in every 



42 




station for amounts up to $20. 
Put the farecard into the turn- 
stile as you enter and leave a 
station. Fares are determined 
by the length of the ride and 
the time of day, with rush-hour 
charges the highest. You can 
get transfers to the bus system 
that eliminate or reduce the 
fare. Transfers from one bus 
to another result in no addi- 
tional fare. Always pick up 
transfers as you begin your trip. 
A Weekend Tourist Pass allows 
unlimited travel on both buses 
and subways for up to four 
people on Saturdays, Sundays, 
and holidays at a reduced fare. 
The pass can be bought at 



Metro Center, the Pentagon 
station, Metro headquarters, 
and at all bus depots. Some 
hotels have them available 
for guests. 

Taxis 

Taxis provide an alternative to 
public transportation and your 
own car. Fares inside the Dis- 
trict of Columbia are deter- 
mined by zones and the 
amount is based on the num- 
ber of zone boundaries crossed. 
If you are in doubt about the 
zone system, ask the driver in 
advance about the fare to be 
charged. Taxis inMaryland and 
Virginia operate on meters. 



Tourmobile 

If you are planning to spend 
one or more days touring the 
museums and monuments near 
the National Mall, consider 
using the Tourmobile (left). 
This is a National Park Service 
concessioner-operated, nar- 
rated sightseeing bus service 
that stops at all major points 
of interest on the Mall, Capi- 
tol Hill, and Arlington Ceme- 
tery. Tickets allow unlimited 
reboarding privileges and can 
be purchased from the driver 
as you board; only travelers 
checks and cash are accepted. 
Children under 3 ride free; 
children 3 through 1 1 ride at 
a reduced fare. Service to 
Frederick Douglass National 
Historic Site is available June 
1 5 to Labor Day and to Mount 
Vernon April through October 
Buses run 9 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. 
from mid-June to Labor Day 
and 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. the 
rest of the year. 



43 



Looking West down the Mall 




This gazetteer is organized to 
help you make the best use of 
your time in Washington, D.C., 
and its environs and to provide 
you with enough information 
about the various sites that you 
can make an informed choice 
about what to see in the time 
you have available. Part 2 — 
what you are reading now— is 
divided into three broad 
groups— Downtown East, 
Downtown West, and the Met- 
ropolitan Area. 

How the Gazetteer 
Is Organized 

The entries describing sites in 
the first two categories— 
Downtown East and Down- 
town West— are assembled into 
loose geographical order, so 
you can probably reach any 
four or five of them easily on 
foot. And that is something 
important to remember, for 
Washington is a very walkable 
city. Nice wide sidewalks and 



relatively level terrain make this 
possible. Downtown East 
begins with the U.S. Capitol, 
circles around Capitol Hill, 
takes in sites north of the Fed- 
eral Triangle — that piece of 
land enclosed by Constitution 
Avenue, Pennsylvania Avenue, 
and 1 5th Street where many 
government offices are 
located — and then goes 
counter-clockwise around the 
Mall through the various 
Smithsonian Institution muse- 
ums, ending up with the 
National Archives and the 
National Gallery of Art. Down- 
town West starts at the Ellipse 
and then the White House, 
takes in the sites north and west 
of Lafayette Park, and finishes 
with the memorials to George 
Washington, Thomas Jefferson, 
and Abraham Lincoln. The 
Metropolitan Area section con- 
sists of sites outside the Down- 
town area but within or near 
the Capital Beltway. This is sub- 



divided into the three political 
subdivisions — the District of 
Columbia, Maryland, and 
Virginia— and the sites are 
listed alphabetically within 
each group. 

To recapitulate: the sites in 
the downtown core are listed 
geographically and those out- 
side this central core are pre- 
sented in alphabetical order. 

The Descriptions 

The gazetteer entries contain 
the address and the times and 
days of the week that the site 
is open. If there is an admission 
fee, it is noted along with any 
special facilities, tour arrange- 
ments, or provisions for the 
handicapped. Though restau- 
rants and cafes to suit all pal- 
ates and pockets are abundant 
throughout the city and many 
government buildings have caf- 
eterias, food service at individ- 
ual sites is noted in each entry. 
Museum shops are also men- 



44 




Downtown West 
pages 80-103 



^ 



Lincoln 
Memorial 



Downtown East 
' pages 46-79 



Capitol 



tioned. A brief description of 
each site completes the entry. 
Occasionally a detailed dis- 
cussion — a feature — follows an 
entry, giving background infor- 
mation on the site. 

Although this gazetteer 
accents places managed by the 
National Park Service, it in- 
cludes as many other sites as 
possible regardless of whatever 
public or private authority 
administers them, and that 



selection is representative of 
the wealth of museums, parks, 
and historic homes to be found 
here in and around the Na- 
tion's Capital. 

Once you have become 
familiar with the area, venture 
out on your own. You may dis- 
cover a gem or two by your- 
self that we have missed — and 
have the pleasant surprise of 
stumbling onto something 
thoroughly enjoyable. 



The Maps 

This guidebook contains four 
maps to help you find the 
places that are mentioned in 
the text. Each site in Part 2 has 
a number that is shown in a 
circle at the beginning of the 
gazetteer entry and on the 
respective map. The circles for 
the Downtown East entries are 
red ; the map is on pages 46-47. 
Those for Downtown West are 
black ; that map is on pages 
80-81. The Metropolitan Area 
map is on page 104; its circles 
are green. The fourth map is 
on page 1 58. It is intended to 
arouse your curiosity with an 
indication of the variety and 
diversity of side trips you could 
take throughout the area from 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
to Norfolk, Virginia. 



45 



J 



Downtown East 



] 




National MuseuiTH ffSM 



Washington 

Convention 

Center 



Tl 



of Women in the Arts 



For statue_locatif)!i 
Lafayette Park 

A. Von Steuben Statue 

B. Kosciuszko Status 
I C . Baruch Bench 

&v-Jackson Statue 



^ ZISTaTFP 

IfSif Division 
Monument 




rtin LMtner~G Place: 
King, Jr., 



Mem6rial Library 



O 



Natlibna! Museunr 
of Atjnerican 



Ford'^ Theatre 
National 



historic Site 



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Natibr 



Rochambeau Statue The House Where 



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Office 
Building 



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PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE SOUTH 



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Hall (D./^R.) 



2nd Division 
Monument, 




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Cfiristmas *u\» / Scout 
Tree mi. Memorial 

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National 
Aquarium 



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Tower of Justice 



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Postal 

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Hancock 
Statue 



CONSTITUTION AVENUE 



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WASHINGTON 
MONUMENT 



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American 
History 



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National 
Archives 



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National 
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"Freer 
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Auditors 
Building 



Departmeni 
of Agriculture 




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TIDAL 
BASIN 



and Printing 

Si 




THOMAS 

JEFFERSON 

MEMORIAL 



/fountain 
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RochamHeau 




C Street 



Bureau Annex 




D Street 



., .. , Haupt 
National Garden 
Museum of 
African Art 

and Arthur M. ^— 1./«. 
Sackler Gallery^© 



Forrestal Building 





Hirshho 
Museun 
Sculptu 
Gardea 



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Arts and Industri 
Building 

Federal i 

Aviation j ' 

Admlnistratioq^ 

C Street 



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Office Building 



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Plaza 



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of Housing 
and Urban 
Development 







U.S.Capitol, East Front 




O^.S. Capitol, Capitol Hill. 
The Capitol is open daily 
9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Closed 
January 1 , Thanksgiving, and 
December 25. For security 
reasons all persons and any- 
thing that they may be carry- 
ing are examined as they 
enter the building. Guided 
tours of the historic parts of 
the Capitol begin in the Ro- 
tunda every few minutes from 
9 a.m. to 3:45 p.m. Informa- 
tion on committee meetings 
and hearings is available daily. 
If you wish to go to the visi- 
tors' gallery in either cham- 
ber without taking the tour, 
you may obtain passes from 
your Senators or Representa- 
tive. And you may walk 
around the Capitol's public 
areas without joming a tour. 
Restaurants and snack bars 
are located in the Capitol 
and in each of the office 
buildings. The Public Dining 
Room on the Senate side of 



the Capitol and the Long- 
worth Cafeteria are always 
open to the public; all others 
are restricted to staff mem- 
bers during the lunch hour 
when Congress is in session. 
Facilities for the handi- 
capped are available through- 
out the building, including 
special tours for the hearing 
impaired and for the blind or 
visually impaired. 

History is made every day 
in the Capitol, the nerve cen- 
ter of American Government. 
At no other location in Wash- 
ington is the democratic pro- 
cess so visible. Here the 
people's elected representa- 
tives make daily decisions 
that affect the lives of every 
person living in this Nation. 
Within this wealth of activity, 
some actions stand out from 
all the rest. For instance, it 
was here in the Old Senate 
Chamber that Daniel Web- 
ster, Henry Clay, and John C. 



Calhoun debated the merits 
of the Federal Union during 
their long public careers. 
After 1859, this was the home 
of the Supreme Court for 76 
years. In Statuary Hall, which 
was the Old House Chamber, 
a small disk on the floor 
marks the spot where John 
Ouincy Adams was fatally 
stricken while denouncing the 
Nation's involvement in the 
Mexican War in 1848. In the 
House of Representatives, 
Presidents have delivered 
their State of the Union ad- 
dresses. Here, too, Woodrow 
Wilson in 1917 and Franklin 
Roosevelt in 1941 asked Con- 
gress for Declarations of 
War. Most Presidents, too, 
have been inaugurated at the 
Capitol. On December 9, 
1824, the members rose to 
greet the marquis de Lafayette 
as he came to visit the Capi- 
tol of the Nation he had 
helped create. Over the years 



48 



U.S. Capitol, Rotunda 




Statue of Freedom 



1 V, 



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LitoA 




the remains of a few eminent 
individuals have lain in state 
in the Rotunda. The first so 
honored was Henry Clay, 
Senator from Kentucky, Sec- 
retary of State, and frequent 
presidential candidate. He 
was followed by Abraham 
Lincoln in 1865. In recent 
years Presidents John Ken- 
nedy, Herbert Hoover, 
Dwight Eisenhower, and 
Lyndon Johnson have been 
accorded this honor. Besides 
the momentous events, the 
ordinary business of govern- 
ment proceeds every day in 
the various committee and 
meeting rooms located 
throughout the building. 
These hearings often lead to 
new legislation or investigate 
the possibility of the misuse 
of power. A few events not 
strictly within the realm of 
government but of impor- 
tance to the Nation have 
taken place here. One of the 



most momentous was when 
Samuel F. B. Morse tapped 
out the first telegraph mes- 
sage, "What hath God 
wrought?" from the Capitol 
to his assistant in Baltimore 
in 1844. The Capitol grounds 
are as splendid as the build- 
ing. Trees from more than 
two-thirds of the states grow 
here. One tree, a mountain 
maple, is registered with the 
American Forestry Associa- 
tion as a champion for its 
species. Three trees— two 
English elms and one Ameri- 
can elm — are known to have 
been here before work began 
on the Capitol. The grounds 
are the result of design work 
by Frederick Law Olmsted. 
Starting in 1874 Olmsted re- 
worked the soil of the grounds 
plowing and replowing, add- 
ing compost, swamp muck, 
ground oyster shells, and lime. 
Now 100 species of trees and 
shrubs beautify the grounds. 



49 



The Capitol: Centerpiece of the Capital 



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From the beginning, little has 
been left to chance in the Na- 
tion's Capital. Most every- 
thing has been very carefully 
planned, including where the 
city is located and where the 
Capitol itself sits. And that is 
a story in itself, for it was not 
until 1790, 7 years after inde- 
pendence had been won that 
the decision was Anally made 
to locate the national capital 
on the banks of the Potomac. 
Southerners wanted a capital 
below the Mason-Dixon line. 
Northern representatives 
hoped for one in their own 
region. !n the end it was a 



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compromise. Alexander Ham- 
Uton, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, wanted the Federal Gov- 
ernment to assume, at face 
value, the debts that the states 
had incurred during the Rev- 
olution. Hamilton, however, 
did not have the votes to im- 
plement this program. Thomas 
Jefferson, Secretary of State, 
was a strong advocate of a 
southern capital. Together 
Jefferson and Hamilton found 
the votes that the other 
needed. The Federal Govern- 
ment assumed the debts, and 
on July 19, 1790, Congress 
passed the Residency Act giv- 



50 



MARYLAND 



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The original 10-mlle-square District of Columbia was formed from portions 
of Virginia and Maryland in 1790. The next year Pierre L'Enfant produced 
his plan for the capital. In 1846 the Virginia portion of the District was 
receded to that state. Legislation in 1871 and 1895 annexed Georgetown to 
Washington. Today, the Washington and District boundaries coincide. 






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ing President George Wash- 
ington the authority to pick 
the location for the federal 
capital on the Potomac River 
(see inset map). After select- 
ing the site, Washington 
chose French engineer Pierre 
L'Enfant to lay out the city. 
The plan produced here is by 
Andrew Ellicott, L'Enfanfs 
surveyor, who was aided by 
Benjamin Bannecker, a free 
black. Once the plan was in 
hand the commissioners held 
a competition for the design 
of the most important struc- 
ture, the Capitol, which 
L'Enfant had sited on Jenkins 



Hill, a point with vistas to the 
west and south. Dr. William 
Thornton, a physician and am- 
ateur architect, won with a 
plan calling for a structure of 
classical proportions with a 
shallow dome (above, right). 
Among the other proposals 
was one (above, left) by James 
Diamond. On September 18, 
1793, Washington laid the 
cornerstone. When the Sen- 
ate Chamber was finished. 
Congress moved from Phila- 
delphia and met in Wash- 
ington for the first time on 
November 21, 1800. 



51 



The Evolving Capitol 



Looking at the drawings Dr. 
William Thornton submitted 
for the Capitol, it is hard to 
see exactly where his building 
is today, for it has been re- 
shaped, altered, and enlarged 
by his successors as the Na- 
tion's needs and priorities 
have changed. When Congress 
moved from Philadelphia, only 
the Senate Chamber was fin- 
ished. The Senate, House of 
Representatives, Supreme 
Court, and the courts of the 
District of Columbia shared 
these cramped quarters until 



the House of Representatives 
Chamber was completed in 
1807. At that time the two 
chambers were connected by 
a covered wooden walkway. 
After the building was burned 
by the British in 1814, archi- 
tect Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 
who had been supervising con- 
struction since 1803, threw 
himself into the work of re- 
building. In 1817 Charles 
Bulfinch took over and stayed 
on the job until the Capitol 
was finished in 1829, leaving 
the Capitol looking as it did in 



this 1844 painting by William 
MacLeod. Even as the con- 
struction came to an end, how- 
ever, the demands of the fast- 
growing Nation were making 
the need for more space inevi- 
table. In 1850 money was set 
aside for new and larger Sen- 
ate and House wings. Thomas 
U. Walter was chosen as the 
architect, and the cornerstone 
for the addition was laid the 
next year. When the Statue 
of Freedom by Thomas Craw- 
ford was lifted atop the new 
dome on December 2, 1863, 




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the Capitol assumed the basic** 
form we know today. Between 
1958 and 1962 the central por- 
tion of the East Front was ex- 
tended to provide additional 
office space, but the facade's 
design remained unchanged. 
In the mid-1980s, the original. 




0^^ 



crumbling sandstone of the 
West Front was restored and 
strengthened, ensuring the 
structure's survival into its 
third century. 



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^^.^ 




■•^ Capitol Treasures 




Nations do not only live in 
the present or the future. The 
past shows them where they 
have been and what they have 
tried to do. It is appropriate 
that these twin threads of a 
Nation's sense of being find 
expression in this Capitol 
building where so much activ- 
ity concerns the future while 
searching for guideposts in 
the past. Through various 
forms of art -paintings, por- 
traits, frescoes, statues, busts, 
reliefs, murals, friezes -the 
great men and women and 
the pas amount events of our 
history are honored. The 



54 




most splendid space in the 
Capitol is the Rotunda. The 
cast iron dome soars above 
the floor culminating in 
Constantino Brumidi^s fresco 
(left) of "The Apotheosis of 
Washington," on which the 
artist worked 1 1 months. At 
the base of the dome a frieze, 
designed and begun by 
Brumidi, is painted to look 
like a bas-relief and depicts 
key moments in American 
history. Both the frieze and 
the canopy under the dome 
were cleaned and conserved 
in 1987. Paintings by major 
artists are set into the Ro- 



tunda wails. Statues and busts 
of prominent Americans are 
located around the floor. The 
bronze doors at the eastern 
entrance to the Rotunda de- 
pict the life of Christopher 
Columbus. Statuary Hall is 
one of the best known fea- 
tures of the Capitol. In 1864 
Congress decided that each 
state should send to the Capi- 
tol a bronze or marble statue 
of an individual noted "for 
their historic renown" with a 
limit of two statues per state. 
Many statues are in the Old 
House chamber; others are 
located throughout the build- 



ing. All through the Capitol 
decoration abounds. A few 
artists -Brumidi in the 19th- 
century and Allyn Cox in the 
20th -spent years painting 
historic events, Americans at 
work, the native flora and 
fauna, and allegorical scenes. 
Everywhere you look, you 
will find art. In the older 
parts of the Capitol look for 
the column capitals. Instead 
of the traditional Greek and 
Roman decoration you will 
find ears of corn and tobacco 
leaves and flowers designed 
by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. 



55 



Supreme Court 




^Senate and House Office 
Buildings, Capitol Hill. Open 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday 
through Friday. Closed Janu- 
ary 1, Thanksgiving, Decem- 
ber 25, and weekends. The 
office buildings are linked to 
the Capitol by an under- 
ground train that the public 
may ride although the legisla- 
tors have preference when 
going to vote. If you want to 
watch the House ur Senate at 
work, you need a free vis- 
itor's pass. For admission to 
the gallery of the House of 
Representatives you should 
go to your Congressman's of- 



fice. For tickets to the Senate, 
go to either of your Senators. 
Should you wish to make a 
business appointment with 
your Representative or Sena- 
tors, see the receptionist, 
who will set up one if possible. 
Read the local newspapers, 
for they print schedules of 
activities in both houses and 
of the various committees. 

South of the Capitol, 
on Independence Avenue, are 
the three office buildings of 
the House of Representatives. 
On the north side, on Consti- 
tution Avenue, are the Senate 
office buildings. 



^Supreme Court of the United 
States, East Capitol and First 
Streets, NE. Open 9 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Closed weekends and 
holidays. Limited seating is 
available to the public on a 
first-come, first-served basis. 
Short courtroom presenta- 
tions are held every hour on 
the half hour from 9:30 a.m. 
to 3:30 p.m. except when the 
Court hears oral arguments. 
On days the Court sits only 
to hand down opinions, pre- 
sentations begin at 1 1 :30 a.m. 
The ground floor has chang- 
ing exhibits on the Court and 



56 




the Justices and a 30-minute 
film. Food service. 

"The Republic endures and 
this is the symbol of its faith," 
said Chief Justice Charles 
Evans Hughes as he laid the 
cornerstone for the Supreme 
Court's first permanent home 
in 1932. During the previous 
145 years, the Court had met 
in Manhattan's Royal Ex- 
change Building, the Philadel- 
phia City Hall, the basement 
of the U.S. Capitol, a tavern, 
the Old Senate Chamber, and 
a few other places. To provide 
the Court with its own build- 
ing Chief Justice William 



Howard Taft labored long 
and hard. The white marble 
structure, designed by Cass 
Gilbert in the style of a clas- 
sic Greek temple, displays 
the legend "Equal Justice 
Under Law." On both sides 
of the main stairway leading 
to the building are massive 
statues. One represents "The 
Contemplation of Justice" 
and the other symbolizes 
"The Guardian, or Authority, 
of Law." Huge bronze doors 
contain sculptured panels de- 
picting historic scenes in the 
law's development. The court- 
room, flanked by 24 Ionic 



columns, is the principal at- 
traction. The Court hears oral 
arguments from 10 a.m. to 
noon and 1 to 3 p.m. from 
the first Monday in October 
through the last of April and 
thereafter sits to hand down 
opinions through early July. 



57 



Due Process 



The Supreme Court is a 
purely American idea; it has 
no historic precedent and its 
role was only vaguely defined 
in the Constitution. It is ba- 
sically what its name says it is: 
the highest, the last Court of 
the land. The Court consists 
of eight associate justices and 
one chief justice appointed 
by the President with the ad- 
vice and consen^of the Sen- 
ate. To date the Court has 
had 16 chief justices, four of 
whom are pictured above; 
from left : John Jay , 1 789-95; 
JohnIV1arshaU,T801-35; 
Salmon R t::hase, 1864-73; 



and William Howard Taft, 
1921-30. The Court annually 
hears arguments on approxi- 
mately 170 cases out of 
almost 5,000 petitions sub- 
mitted. Beginning the flrst 
Monday in October the Court 
hears oral arguments on the 
cases for three days of each 
week, alternating every two 
weeks between hearing cases 
and being in recess. This does 
not mean that the Court is 
not working; quite the con- 
trary, for this is when the 
justices meet in conference, 
do research, and write opin- 
ions. The work of the Supreme 



Court has ^^HK>vided an 
opposing view to the other 
two branches of governmeni 
At times it has acted as a re- 
straining force on the Execi 
tive or the Congress. At oth< 
times it has ventured into 
controversial arenas itself. 
Always it has acted as the 
interpreter of the Constitu- 
tion. Like most institutions 
the Court knows that though 
individuals may err, a group 
of persons over time should 
be able to arrive at solutions 
beneficial to the greatest 
number of people. And that is 
the true test in a democracy. 



]ji^^^ 



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mrf ' 






Folger Shakespeare Library 




Neptune Fountain Library of Congress 



OSewall-Belmont House 
National Historic Site, 144 

Constitution Avenue, NE. 
Open 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Tues- 
day through Friday; noon to 
4 p.m. Saturday, Sunday, and 
holidays. Docents give tours 
of the house and gardens. 
Named for its builder- 
Robert Sewall — and a bene- 
factress— Alva Belmont— of 
the National Woman's Party, 
the house preserves memora- 
bilia of the women's suffrage 
movement leading to the 
adoption of the 19th Amend- 
ment. Also honored is its 
most famous resident, Alice 
Paul, who wrote the proposed 
equal rights amendment. The 
house is one of the oldest on 
Capitol Hill and was declared 
a national historic site in 
1974. Seven restored rooms 
recapture the Federal period. 
The National Woman's Party 
makes its headquarters here. 



Folger Shakespeare Library 

201 East Capitol Street, SE. 
The exhibit halls are open 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m. The Reading 
Room, for scholars with per- 
mits, is open 8:45 a.m. to 
4:45 p.m. Closed holidays. 
Readers' permits must be ob- 
tained in advance from the 
registrar. 

The library contains a pre- 
mier collection of rare books 
and manuscripts relating to 
the Renaissance and the 
world's largest collection of 
the works of William Shake- 
speare. Philanthropist Henry 
Clay Folger spent his spare 
time and much of his money 
acquiring the 7,000 rare books 
that form the core of the col- 
lection, which now numbers 
about 250,000 volumes and 
50,000 manuscripts. It in- 
cludes an astonishing 66 per- 
cent of all titles published 
in English from the invention 
of printing to 1640. 




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60 



Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building 




jLibrary of Congress, East 
Capitol and First Streets, SE. 
The library, consisting of the 
Thomas Jefferson, John 
Adams, and James Madison 
buildings, is open every day 
except January 1 and Decem- 
ber 25. Continuous free 
guided tours are provided 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Friday. The exhibit 
halls are open 8:30 a.m. to 
9:30 p.m. Monday through 
Friday and 8:30 a.m. to 6 
p.m. Saturday and Sunday. 
For the hours of the reading 
rooms and reader services, 
write or call the General 
Reading Rooms Division. 

This institution was estab- 
lished in 1800 as a reference 
facility for the Congress. 
That is still one of its most 
important functions; the Con- 
gressional Research Service 
receives 400,000 requests a 
year. And at the same time it 
has grown into one of the 



great libraries of the world. 
The original library was lost 
when the British burned the 
Capitol in 1814. Thomas Jef- 
ferson sold many of his books 
to the government to reestab- 
lish the library, but a second 
fire destroyed three-fifths of 
that collection. In 1897 the 
library moved into the hand- 
some Italian Renaissance 
structure now named for Jef- 
ferson. The mosaics, paint- 
ings, and other decorations 
extol those who have contrib- 
uted grandly to mankind's 
knowledge. The John Adams 
Building was constructed in 
the late 1930s, and the James 
Madison Memorial Building 
was dedicated in 1981 . The 
library, however, is inter- 
nationally known foi its col- 
lections, not its architecture. 
These include one of the larg- 
est collections of incunabula 
(books printed between 1455 
and 1501) in the world. 



Among the many presidential 
papers are one of Jefferson's 
drafts of the Declaration of 
Independence, Lincoln's 
drafts of the Gettysburg Ad- 
dress, and Theodore Roose- 
velt's letters to his children. 
The American Folklife Center 
contains recordings of Amer- 
ican music collected from 
the hills and coves of the 
Southern Appalachians, the 
Georgia Sea Islands, New 
Orleans jazz joints, cowboy 
campfires, and religious gath- 
erings. The Music Division 
also owns five Stradivari 
stringed instruments, much 
operatic literature, and man- 
uscripts of many composi- 
tions. During much of the 
year free evening musical 
concerts are presented in the 
Grace Sprague Coolidge Au- 
ditorium. At other times, the 
same room is used for talks 
or lectures sponsored by the 
Poetry Office. 



A1 



Library Collections 



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The Library of Congress owns 
some of the finest examples 
of printing and bookmaking 
known. It owns one of three 
extant Gutenberg Bibles -the 
earUest book printed with 
movable type. If is displayed 
in the Main Hall just a few 
Steps away from the Great Bi- 
bife of Mainz, one of the last 
of the hand-Ietteredpibles 
laboriously produced by 4 v^:, 
$eribes in the same eity where 



Gutenberg perfected his in- 
vention. The Music Division 
possesses a large collection 
of manuscripts by many com- 
posers. Here you can find 
Johannes Brahms^ violin con- 
certo, marches by John Philip 
Sousa, and Rodgers and 
Hammerstein^s working 
scores and lyrics for Okla- 
homa! Photographs include 
daguerrotypes made in the 
earliest days of photography, 



an extensive Civil War col- 
lection, and thousands of 
pictures taken by WPA pho- 
tographers in the 1930s. Many 
miscellaneous, unique treas- 
ures can be found in the Li- 
brary. An example illustrates 
the breadth of the holdings. 
In the 1940s one of Abraham 
Lincoln's granddaughters pre- 
sented the Library of Con- 
gress with a velvet-covered 
case. Inside were the contents 



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"Book Sfvice 



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of her grandfather's 
pockets on the night 
that he was shot. The 
only currency in his wallet 
was a $5 Confederate bill. 
This photograph, looking into 
the Main Reading Room, 
shows a number of items 
belonging to the Library. 
From left they are: Leonard 
Volk's life mask of Lincoln; a 
violin by Antonio Stradivari; 
a French Book of Hours, 



^ 



1524; "Head of Christ" by 
Anthony Van Dyck; a 1970s 
facsimile of an 18th-century 
Chinese scroll, A City of 
Cathay; and a manuscript 
globe by Caspar Vopell, 1543. 



Botanic Garden 

I: 



Capital Children's Museunn 








Botanic Garden, Orchids 



Capital Children's Museum, activities 




F* 

0U.S. Botanic Garden, Mary- 
land Avenue between First 
and Second Streets, SW. 
Open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily 
except January 1 and Decem- 
ber 25. 

The Botanic Garden was 
founded in 1820, and the first 
greenhouse was built in 1842 
to house an exotic botanical 
collection that an expedition 
led by the explorer Capt. 
Charles Wilkes brought back 
from the South Pacific. Con- 
struction of the present build- 
ing began in 1931. Some 
rooms recreate tropical set- 
tings and others depict more 
arid environments. More than 
10,000 plant species from 
around the world are housed 
here. Besides sponsoring four 
special shows annually, the 
Botanic Garden offers spec- 
tacular exhibits, such as its 
world-renowned collection 
of orchids. The fountain is by 
Auguste Bartholdi. 




O Voice of America, 330 Inde- 
pendence Avenue, SW. 
Tours are given Monday 
through Friday at 8:40, 9:40, 
and 10:40 a.m. and 1 :40 and 
2:40 p.m. 

From these studios and 
newsrooms the United States 
broadcasts to nations around 
the world in many languages. 

O Capital Children's Museum, 

800 3rd Street, NE. Open 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. Closed 
January 1 , Easter, Thanks- 
giving, and December 25. Fee. 

Hands on is the key to the 
way this museum operates. 
Here children, through the 
pre-teen years, can find their 
way through the Metamor- 
phomaze, make crafts, and 
dozens of other things. All are 
in the spirit of the museum's 
motto, a Chinese proverb: 
"I see and I forget. I hear 
and I remember. I do and I 
understand." 



Union Station, Massachusetts 
and Delaware Avenues, NE. 
Open 24 hours a day. 

The station, modeled on 
the Baths of Caracalla in 
Rome, was completed in 1907 
as part of revitalization of the 
National Mall. Until the jet 
age arrived, visiting digni- 
taries entered Washington 
through this station. Today it 
is a major point for rail travel 
on the East Coast. 

Q National Building Museum, 

5th and F Streets, NW. Open 
10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Friday; noon to 4 p.m. 
Saturday, Sunday, and holi- 
days. Closed Thanksgiving 
and December 25. 

Known for many years as 
the Old Pension Building, var- 
ious government offices were 
housed here from 1883 to 
1963. Now, it is dedicated to 
serving as a museum to build- 
ings and their builders. 



64 



National Mijseum of American Art 




^National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art, 8th and G Streets, 
NW, and the National Portrait 
GaUery (both Smithsonian In- 
stitution), 8th and F Streets, 
NW. Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 
p.m. daily. Closed December 
25. Restaurant and museum 
shop. 

The imposing Greek Re- 
vival structure that houses 
these two museums was 
erected in the mid- 1800s 
halfway between the Capitol 
and the White House. It be- 
came the first home of the 
Patent Office, and during the 
Civil War wounded soldiers 
were treated in its halls. The 
Smithsonian Institution ac- 
quired the building in 1958 
and has turned it into these 
two museums. The National 
Museum of American Art 
exhibits outstanding exam- 
ples of painting, sculpture, 
graphics, photography, and 
folk art by American artists. 



The subjects range from the 
lands, waters, and people 
of the New World through 
scenes of the growing Nation 
to those that lend themselves 
to bold contemporary de- 
sign. Post World War II 
paintings and sculpture are 
shown in the large gallery 
where Abraham Lincoln's in- 
augural reception was held. 
The neighboring National 
Portrait Gallery is a museum 
of history seen through the 
eyes of portrait painters. 
Responding to Congressional 
mandate, the gallery has 
works of Americans note- 
worthy for contributions to 
the "history, development and 
culture" of the people of the 
United States. Two major 
portraits, the Gilbert Stuarts 
of George and Martha Wash- 
ington, are shared with the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
They alternate three years in 
Boston and three years here. 



IP National Museum of Women 
in the Arts, 1250 New York 
Avenue, NW. Open 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Tuesday through Sat- 
urday; noon to 5 p.m. Sunday. 

Opened in 1987, the 
museum celebrates the 
achievements of female art- 
ists. The collection contains 
paintings, prints, drawings, 
sculpture, pottery, and pho- 
tography from the Renais- 
sance to the present. The 
museum's goal is to heighten 
awareness of the contribu- 
tion of women artists. 



65 



Ford's Theatre, interior 




(Q Martin Luther King Me- 
morial Library, 901 G Street, 
NW. Open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
Monday through Thursday; 
9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Friday and 
Saturday; 1 to 5 p.m. Sunday. 
Closed holidays. 

This is the main building 
and administrative center for 
the public libraries of the 
District of Columbia. This 
institution is geared to com- 
munity use rather than to a 
particular constituency as 
are many of the great librar- 
ies within the city. It is also 
distinguished by being the 
only building in Washington 
designed by architect Ludwig 
Mies van der Rohe, whose 
motto was "less is more." 

® Ford's Theatre, 511 10th 
Street, NW. The House 
Where Lincoln Died, 516 10th 
Street, NW. The museum is 
open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. 
Closed December 25. For in- 



formation on plays, check the 
newspapers or call the box 
office. Open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
The theater has been re- 
stored to its appearance on 
the night of April 14, 1865, 
when President Abraham Lin- 
coln was shot here by John 
Wilkes Booth. Among the 
original items are the sofa in 
the Presidential box and the 
framed engraving of George 
Washington that hung on the 
front of the box. A museum 
on the lower level contains 
exhibits devoted to Lincoln's 
life and political career. Be- 
sides being a museum. Ford's 
is also an active theater. The 
National Park Service main- 
tains the building, and the 
Ford's Theatre Society, a non- 
profit organization, is respon- 
sible for the programs. Over 
the years the society has 
turned Ford's into a center 
for contemporary American 



theater, producing plays re- 
flecting our cultural and eth- 
nic diversity. 

Across the street is William 
Petersen's boardinghouse, 
where Lincoln was taken af- 
ter he was shot. The Presi- 
dent's wife, Mary, and son, 
Robert, spent the night in the 
front parlor while in the back 
parlor Secretary of War Ed- 
win Stanton questioned wit- 
nesses. Lincoln died here on 
the morning of April 15. The 
furnishings and fixtures of 
the restored first floor are 
similar to those that were in 
the house when Lincoln died. 

0U.S. Navy Memorial, Penn- 
sylvania Avenue and 8th 
Street, NW. 

Dedicated in 1987, the 
memorial honors the U.S. 
Navy. "The Lone Sailor" 
stands on a gigantic map of 
the world that focuses on 
Earth's oceans. 



66 



Ford's Theatre, exterior 




House Where Lincoln Died 



■ '^^^ i^'"' 




^Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, J. Edgar Hoover 
Building, 10th Street and 
Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. 
Tours are free, last one hour, 
and are given 8:45 a.m. to 
4:15 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. The tour entrance is 
on E Street. Closed holidays. 

In 1975 the FBI moved 
from the Department of Jus- 
tice building into this new 
home. The bureau conducts 
a tour that includes dramatic 
presentations of some of its 
most famous cases, a look at 
the world-famous FBI labora- 
tory, and a firearms demon- 
stration. Exhibits illustrate 
past and current investigative 
activities. 

The Old Post Office Tower, 

1 100 Pennsylvania Avenue. 
NW. Open daily. Tours by 
glass-enclosed elevator to the 
tower observation deck are 
given by the National Park 



Service 8 a.m. to 1 1 p.m. 
April through October; 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. November 
through March. 

For years they said, "Don't 
tear it down!" Finally the pres- 
ervationists had their way, 
and Washington is the richer 
for this adaptive reuse of the 
former offices of the Postmas- 
ter General. The Pavilion on 
the ground floor is filled with 
shops and eateries. The rest 
of the handsomely restored 
building now functions as gov- 
ernment office space for the 
National Endowment for the 
Arts and is named for its first 
administrator, Nancy Hanks, 
who was instrumental in sav- 
ing the building. The Con- 
gress Bells, a bicentennial 
gift from Great Britain, are 
rung on holidays and special 
occasions. 



©Freedom Plaza and Pershing 

Park, Pennsylvania Avenue 
and 14th Street, NW. 

This broad flat surface is a 
nice place to rest between 
tour stops while you study 
Pierre L'Enfant's original de- 
sign for the National Capital 
that is marked out in colored 
concrete on the plaza surface. 
To the west across 14th Street 
is Pershing Park, an oasis of 
trees, shrubs, and water in 
the swirling traffic. 

^Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing, 14th and C Streets, 
SW. Continuous tours 8 a.m. 
to 2 p.m. Monday through Fri- 
day. Closed holidays. 

This is where they make the 
money! More than S12 billion 
worth of U.S. currency is 
printed here each year. Post- 
age stamps, treasury bonds, 
and other government secu- 
rities are printed here. 



67 



James Smithson's Legacy 



James Smithson, (1765-1829), 
was a distinguished English 
scientist who had never vis- 
ited the United States. Yet 
when his nephew died in 1835 
without heirs, Smithson ^s en- 
tire fortune of more than 
$500,000 was left, according 
to Smithson^s stipulation, to 
the United States "to found 
at Washington, under the 
nam& of the Smithsonian In- 
stitutioh an establishment for 
the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men .'' This 
is sill^e knqw^bout Smith- 
^oi»»|pes ^^ for the 

liistitiffioii thai vvould bear his 



name. But his bequest 
founded what is today one of 
the truly great museum com- 
plexes in the world. Within 
its collections the Smithson- 
ian has more than 134 million 
objects and specimens; only 
about one percent can be 
shown at any one time. 
Among the great national 
treasures is the 15-star and 
15-stripe flag that flew over 
Baltimore's Fort McHenry 
during the British bombard- 
ment in 1814 and inspired 
Francis Scott Key to write 
the "Star-Spangled Banner."" 
In 1909 a descendant of the 



commanding ofTicer offered it 
to the Smithsonian, and the 
restored flag now hangs as 
the focal point of the Mu- 
seum of American History. 
The National Air and Space 
Museum contains some of the 
most significant aircraft ever 
to fly: the Wright brothers' 
plane. The Spirit of St. Louis^ 
a German V2 rocket, and 
many others. The records and 
photographs of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology survive 
in the National Museum of 
Natural History's Anthropol- 
igal Archives. Much of the 
work of the Smithsonian, how- 




"^^^ 



ever, goes on away from the 
museums on the Mall. Less 
well known is the fact that the 
Smithsonian is a preeminent 
research institution delving 
into all aspects of the physical 
make-up of our planet and the 
worlds beyond. Major facili- 
ties throughout the country 
and around the world report 
on geophysical occurrences, 
astrophysical events, and the 
quality of marine life and the 
waters in which they live. A 
facility of the National Zoo 
in rural Virginia breeds 
animals whose survival as a 
species is dependent on zoos. 



Anthropology expeditions 
search for remains of early 
humans from Labrador to the 
South Seas and record van- 
ishing folkways. Most of these 
ventures have their genesis in 
the Smithsonian "Castle" 
(above right), the flrst of the 
institution's buildings in 
Washington. Today the 
Smithsonian is an organiza- 
tion whose activities relate to 
the breadth of the human 
imagination. It has indeed 
fulfllled the wishes of James 
Smithson (left). 



Left to right: Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian "Castle, " Enid Haupt Garden, and National Museum of African Art 




Smithsonian Institution, 1000 
Jefferson Drive, SW. Open 
10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily. 
Hours for all Smithsonian 
museums may be extended 
during the summer. Closed 
December 25. 

When in 1838 the United 
States received a legacy of 
more than $500,000 from the 
estate of James Smithson, 
Sen. John C. Calhoun thought 
that the government could 
not accept it and urged that 
the fortune be returned. 
Congressman John Quincy 
Adams disagreed and worked 
strenuously for the creation 
of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Legislation to authorize 
it was passed in 1846. The first 
Smithsonian building, known 
as "The Castle," was designed 
by James Renwick and com- 
pleted in 1855. The original 
building is now primarily the 
administrative headquarters, 
houses the visitor information 



center, and contains James 
Smithson's tomb. The institu- 
tion maintains a variety of re- 
markable museums in and 
around Washington. They 
are: the Anacostia Museum, 
the Arthur M. Sackler Gal- 
lery, the Arts and Industries 
Building, the Freer Gallery 
of Art, the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, the National Air and 
Space Museum, the National 
Museum of African Art, 
the National Museum of 
American Art, the National 
Museum of American His- 
tory, the National Museum 
of Natural History, the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, the 
National Zoo, and the Ren- 
wick Gallery. The Smith- 
sonian also administers the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 
New York City. 



Freer Gallery of Art (Smith- 
sonian Institution), 12th 
Street and Jefferson Drive, 
SW. Closed for construction 
linking the Freer to the 
Sackler, 1988 to 1992. 

When Charles Freer, a De- 
troit industrialist, died in 
1919, he left behind the fore- 
most collection of Oriental 
art in North America and 
more than 100 paintings by 
James McNeill Whistler. He 
left this treasure to the United 
States. He also provided 
funds to construct a suitable 
museum and establish an 
endowment. The gallery ex- 
hibits paintings. Oriental por- 
celains, Japanese screens, 
painted manuscripts, Persian 
miniatures and metalwork, 
and Chinese bronzes dating 
back to 1 100 B.C. Whistler's 
famous Peacock Room, 
bought intact by Freer, is a 
spectacular highlight in this 
museum of delicate beauty. 



70 



Burghers of Calais, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 





^Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 

(Smithsonian Institution), 
1050 Independence Avenue, 
SW. Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
Museum shop. 

Chinese bronzes. Near 
Eastern metalwork and sculp- 
tures, and Persian miniatures 
are on display in this under- 
ground museum. 

) National Museum of African 

Art (Smithsonian Institution), 
950 Independence Avenue, 
SW. Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 
p.m. daily. Closed December 
25. Museum shop. 

The Museum of African 
Art was founded in 1964 to 
display the cultural heritage 
of Americans of African de- 
scent. The galleries contain 
displays from the museum's 
collection of textiles, jewelry, 
and musical instruments, as 
well as sculpture in wood, 
brass, iron, ivory, and gold. 



^Arts and Industries Building 

(Smithsonian Institution), 900 
Jefferson Drive, SW. Open 10 
a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily. Closed 
December 25. Museum shop. 

This is the second oldest 
Smithsonian building on the 
Mall, erected 1879-80. It was 
restored to its Victorian 
appearance when exhibits 
from the Centennial Exposi- 
tion were moved to Washing- 
ton and presented to the 
Smithsonian. The effect of 
this gift, which increased the 
institution's holdings fourfold, 
was to bring history and tech- 
nology within the scope of 
the Smithsonian's activities. 
Before the exhibits were in- 
stalled, however, the build- 
ing was used for President 
James A. Garfield's inaugu- 
ral ball in 1881. The exhibits 
include steam-powered ma- 
chines as well as lace, tele- 
scopes, silverware, perfume, 
and pistols. 



^Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden (Smith- 
sonian Institution), Independ- 
ence Avenue and 8th Street, 
SW. Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 
p.m. daily. Closed December 
25. Light refreshments are 
served in the outdoor cafe in 
warm weather. Museum shop. 
Joseph Hirshhorn, an immi- 
grant and self-made million- 
aire, donated his collection 
of more than 6,000 paintings 
and sculptures to the Nation 
in 1966. A visit here has been 
called "a capsule course in 
the history of modern art." 
The character of the collec- 
tion is echoed by the circular 
modern building constructed 
for it. Although the art in- 
cludes European creations, 
the works are primarily 
American. The Sculpture 
Garden, across Jefferson 
Drive, contains the museum's 
collection of monumental 
sculpture. 



71 



National Air and Space Museum, interior from the Mall 




National Air and Space Museum, exterior 



® National Air and Space 
Museum (Smithsonian Insti- 
tution), Independence Ave- 
nue from 4th to 7th Streets, 
SW. Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
There is a nomimal charge 
for presentations in the 
theater and Spacearium. 
Food and museum shop. 

Opened in 1976, the Air 
and Space Musenm has al- 
ready become one of the 
world's most visited museums. 
It tells the exhilarating story 
of flight from the Earth's sur- 
face through the develop- 
ment of aircraft, rockets, and 




72 





spacecraft. The building, not 
unlike a hangar, has vast in- 
terior spaces and lofty ceilings 
for the proper display of air- 
craft. All aircraft displayed, 
and almost all spacecraft, 
were actually flown. In the 
Milestones of Right Gallery 
hang the plane the Wright 
brothers first flew at Kitty 
Hawk in 1903, Charles Lind- 
bergh's Spirit of Saint Louis, 
the X-1 that broke the sound 
barrier in 1947, the Apollo 1 1 
command module, a moon 
rock that can be touched, 
and a full-sized walk-through 
model of the Skvlab orbital 



workshop. Examples of rock- 
ets and missiles make a dra- 
matic display. The motion 
picture theater, with a screen 
five stories tall, shows films 
relating to flight. The Albert 
Einstein Planetarium, a gift 
of the Federal Republic of 
Germany, reveals some of the 
mysteries of the heavens. 



73 



National Museum of Natural History, Hope Diamond and Rotunda (below) 



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© National Museum of Natural 
History and the National Mu- 
seum of Man (Smithsonian In- 
stitution), 10th Street and 
Constitution Avenue, NW. 
Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
Cafeteria and museum shop. 

The Natural History Mu- 
seum has two faces: it is a 
preeminent research institu- 
tion that explores all facets 
of life on Earth and beyond, 
and it is a museum. It is in 
this latter role that most of us 
come to know it, for it is a 
fascinating place to discover 
the world of plants, animals, 
fossil organisms, terrestrial 
and extraterrestrial rocks, and 
people of this planet. Visitors 
of all ages find it a treasure 
house of exhibits that includes 
the 45.5-carat Hope Dia- 
mond, a mounted African 
bush elephant that stands in 
the main rotunda, the Star of 
Asia sapphire, and a life-sized 



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74 



Southern Railroad locomotive. National Museum of American History 




fiberglass model of a 92-foot- 
long blue whale. Particular 
favorites are the Hall of Di- 
nosaurs with its reconstruc- 
tions of giant prehistoric 
creatures and the Hall of 
Mammals in which animals 
are displayed in settings that 
reflect their natural surround- 
ings. The Hall of Physical 
Anthropology shows the de- 
velopment of man from his 
first emergence on Earth. The 
Insect Zoo can awaken inter- 
est in insects in those who 
thought they had none. The 
Splendors of Nature dazzles 
the eye, while in the Discov- 
ery Room you can handle 
objects and observe them 
:losely. For people with spe- 
:ial research interests, the 
"Naturalist Center is available 
or further study. Some of the 
inest special exhibits, lasting 
ix months to one year, are to 
•e found in this museum. Ask 
t the information desk. 



g) National Museum of Ameri- 
can History (Smithsonian In- 
stitution), 14th Street and 
Constitution Avenue, NW. 
Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
Cafeteria and museum shop. 
If there is truth to the pop- 
ular description of the Smith- 
sonian as the "nation's attic," 
this is the museum that proves 
it. Here are Eli Whitney's cot- 
ton gin, Elias Howe's sewing 
machine, Thomas Edison's 
phonograph and light bulb, 
the flag that inspired Francis 
Scott Key to write the "Star- 
Spangled Banner," a South- 
ern Railroad steam engine, 
Muhammad All's boxing 
gloves, Jackie Robinson's 
baseball glove, Mr. Roger's 
sweater, and millions of other 
items. Much space is devoted 
to technological development 
in such fields as photogra- 
phy, printing, transportation, 
electricity, and the medical 



sciences. Exhibits are geared 
to telling the story of the 
American experience, letting 
us know how we have be- 
come the Nation we are. 
Equally important, exhibits 
focus on our Eastern Hemi- 
sphere origins, showing us 
what our forebears brought 
with them and what they left 
behind. In "After the Revolu- 
tion" visitors can get a 
glimpse of the newly inde- 
pendent country poised on 
the brink of the Industrial 
Revolution. Other exhibits ex- 
plore the effects of industri- 
alization. Often the exhibits 
have a hands-on section es- 
pecially aimed at engaging 
the imagination and interest 
of children. 



75 



National Archives 

p 




® National Archives, 8th Street 
and Constitution Avenue, 
NW. The Exhibition Hall 
is open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily; summer hours 
may be extended. Closed 
December 25. 

Since the first meeting of 
the Continental Congress the 
government has been con- 
cerned about keeping records. 
Preserving them, however, 
has been difficult. Over the 
years, they have been burned, 
ruined by rain and mildew, 
eaten by insects, sold as junk, 
and stolen by autograph 
hunters. Not until 1934 was a 
proper structure built. The 
building houses research 
facilities and displays some 
of the most vital documents 
concerning the formation of 
the United States, including 
the original copies of the 
Declaration of Independence, 
the Constitution, and the Bill 
of Rights. 



^National Gallery of Art, 6th 

Street and Constitution Ave- 
nue, NW. Open 10 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Monday through Satur- 
day; noon to 9 p.m. Sunday. 
Closed January 1 and De- 
cember 25. The Gallery of- 
fers tours, lectures, and films 
throughout the year, as well 
as weekly concerts from Sep- 
tember through June. Con- 
sult the monthly calendar of 
events for specific informa- 
tion. Cafe, cafeteria, restau- 
rant, and gift shop facilities 
are located in the buildings. 

In half a century the 
National Gallery has become 
one of the great art institu- 
tions of the world. The works 
of Rembrandt, Vermeer, 
Hals, and their compatriots 
in the Dutch and Remish 
schools are well represented, 
the collection of works by the 
French impressionists ranks 
with the best, and the hold- 
ings of Italian painting and 



sculpture are the most com- 
prehensive in North Amer- 
ica. The only painting by 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 
Western Hemisphere hangs 
on the Gallery's walls. The 
American collection has out- 
standing works by such mas- 
ters as John Singleton Copley, 
Gilbert Stuart, and Rem- 
brandt Peale. The Gallery 
consists of two buildings: The 
West, or original. Building 
and The East Building. They 
are linked by a plaza and by 
an underground concourse 
that houses a bookstore and 
a cafeteria. The West Build- 
ing is dominated by the cen- 
tral rotunda with a statue of 
Mercury, the messenger of 
the gods, above a fountain. 
Look for the plaque in the 
floor near the information 
desk at the Constitution Ave- 
nue entrance that marks the 
spot where President James 
Garfield was assassinated 



76 



vlational Gallery of Art, Rotunda, West Building 




4ational Gallery of Art, West and East Buildings 




when a train station stood at 
this spot. The West Building 
was designed by John Russell 
Pope and built in the late 
1930s. The East Building is 
the work of I.M. Pei and was 
constructed in the mid-1970s. 
Both buildings use pink Ten- 
nessee marble from the same 
quarry. There the similarity 
ends, for each is an expres- 
sion of its time. The West 
Building is one of the last 
structures in the city to 
bear the stamp of classicism 
that marks so much of the 
official architecture. The East 
Building is one of the city's 
strongest statements by a con- 
temporary architect. 



77 



A Gift to the People 




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The National Gallery of Art 
is essentially a gift to the 
Nation by the Mellon family. 
Andrew W. Mellon, secre- 
tary of the Treasury for tliree 
presidents, 1921-32, assem- 
bled one of the most out- 
standing collections of 
paintings and sculpture by 
Old Masters during the early 
years of the 20th century. 
While Mellon was ambassa- 
dor to Great Britain, for ex- 
ample, he bought 21 paintings 
from the Hermitage in Len- 
ingrad. For one of them, 
RaphaePs Alba Madonna 
(above), he paid more than $1 
million, an art world record 
up to that time. In 1937 Mel- 
lon presented his collection 
to the United States along 
with funds to build the Gal- 
liery in which to house them 
and an endbwmerit. He spe- 
ciflcally stated that the build- 



ing not bear his name. Mellon 
hoped this would encourage 
other collectors to donate 
their paintings and sculpture, 
ancRt has. The Gallery's West 
BuUding opened to the public 
in 1941 and withm 30 years it 
had been filled through the 
generous donations from other 
outstanding art collectors - 
most notably the Dale, Kress, 
Widener, and Rosenwald fam- 
ilies. More space was neede«L^* 
and this time Andrew Mel-a| 
Ion's son and daughter. Paw 
Mellon and Ailsa Mellon % 
Bruce, who had already madJ 
notable contributions to j 
the collections, provided the 
funds. The East Building, de- 
signed by I.M. Pei, opened to 
the public in 1978. In its 
great Central Court hangs one 
of Alexander Calder's largest 
mobiles and a tapestry de- 
signed by Joan Mir6. 







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Tourmobile stop 
Information kiosk 



Restrooms 

Statue or monument 



)N BAINES JOHNSON 
MEMORIAL GROVE 




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MURRCMZ._ 



Decatur House! 



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New 
Execu 
Office 
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Gallery 



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PPNNSYLVANIA AVENUE 



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U.S. Court ofj3laim^^ 
Treasury Annex, 

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Monument 



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National Museum 
of Women in the Aits 



Washington 

Convention 

aot t/enier 



Depart mefrt 
of the ^ 
Treasury 



_For sfafue tot^ffoif se6 
Lafayette Park 

A, Von Steuben Statue 

B. Kosciuszl<o Statue 
^ C. Baruch Bench 
r-D. Jackson Statue 

E Rochambeau Statue 
F Lafayette Statue 



Martin LLrther:33 Placez 
King, Jr., 
Melnprial Library 



Ford's Theatre 
National 
Historic Sfte- 
The House Where 
Lincoln Died 



Building 



Generaf 
Stierman 
Statuei 



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Butt-Miller 
Memorial 



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National 

Cfiristmas 

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Statue 





Scout 
Memorial 

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Driginal 
Ratentees 



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District Building 

Department 

of 

Commerce 

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Strauss Statue 

National 
Aquarium 



IE Street 






F.B.L 
Building 



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Post 
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tower 



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U.S. 
Postal 
Service 



Department 
of Justice 

Internal 

Revenue 

Service 




CONSTITUTION AVENUE 



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MONUMENT 



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SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 



Dovi/ning^^ ' 
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Kufz Bridge 




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Gallery ||H 



Japanese^ 
Lantern 



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Floral 
Library 



Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing 




Auditors 
Building 



Department 
of Agriculture 




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National Gardenia 
Museum of 
African Art 
and Arthur M 
Sackler Gallery 



Forrestal Building 



TIDAL 
BASIN 





THOMAS 

JEFFERSON 

MEMORIAL 





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Bureau Annex 



D Street 




Rochambeau ^ 

Memorial Arland D. 
Bridge^ Williams. Jr. 
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Bridge 



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Plaza 



ENJAMIN" 
NNEKE 
PARI 



The President's Own " United States Marine Band, South Portico of the White House 




QThe Ellipse, 1600 Constitu- 
tion Avenue, NW. 

This expanse is used for 
everything from the annual 
Christmas Pageant of Peace 
to ball games and large dem- 
onstrations. It contains me- 
morials, two huge fountains 
each made from a single piece 
of granite, the zero milestone, 
and two gatehouses that once 
stood on the Crpitol grounds. 

©The White House, 1600 Penn- 
sylvania Avenue, NW. Open 
10 a.m. to noon Tuesday 
through Saturday. Closed 
Sunday, Monday, and some 



holidays. During the summer 
free tickets showing the ap- 
proximate time of the tour 
are given out at a booth on 
the Ellipse. These tickets are 
available on a first-come, 
first-served basis, and each 
person must have one. Handi- 
capped persons should go di- 
rectly to the Northeast Gate 
on Pennsylvania Avenue for 
admittance. 

The White House has been 
the official residence of every 
American President except 
George Washington. The 
ground floor contains the 
great State rooms— East, 



Green, Blue, and Red Rooms, 
and the State Dining Room- 
in which the President enter- 
tains his guests. The second 
floor contains the private 
rooms reserved for the Presi- 
dent and his family. Of the 
State Rooms, which are open 
free and regularly to the pub- 
lic (the only residence of a 
head of state to be readily 
accessible in the world), the 
largest is the East Room. It 
was intended by architect 
James Hoban to be a "public 
reception room" and has of- 
ten served that function. 
Seven Presidents have lain in 



82 





state here. The Gilbert Stuart 
portrait of George Washing- 
ton that Dolley Madison 
saved before the British 
burned the White House 
hangs here. Thomas Jeffer- 
son used the Green Room as 
his dining room. Today the 
furnishings of the room re- 
flect the styles of 1800-15 
and most are by New York 
cabinetmaker Duncan Phyfe. 
The elliptical Blue Room is 
decorated in the style first 
used by James Monroe. Seven 
of the chairs in the room are 
the original ones that Mon- 
roe ordered from France. The 



Red Room has generally 
served as a parlor and does 
so today. The furniture is of 
the 1810-30 period, of Amer- 
ican manufacture. The State 
Dining Room can accommo- 
date as many as 140 persons 
for a formal dinner. Carved 
into the mantel is John 
Adams" hope for the White 
House and its occupants: "I 
Pray Heaven to Bestow the 
Best of Blessings on THIS 
HOUSE and on All that shall 
hereafter Inhabit it. May none 
but Honest and Wise Men 
ever rule under this Roof." 



83 



The Residence of the President 




The White House was de- 
signed by James Hoban, an 
architect who had been born 
and raised in Ireland. The 
house, built of Virginia sand- 
stone painted white, is in the 
style of an Irish Georgian 
country house. It is the oldest 
public building in the District 
of Columbia, its cornerstone 
having been laid October 13, 
1792, almost one year before 
a similar ceremony for the 
Capitol. The White House 
was barely flnished before re- 
modeling began, with practi- 
cally every subsequent Presi- 
dent contributing something. 
Jefferson, who under a pseu- 



donym had unsuccessfully sub- 
mitted a design for the resi- 
dence, added the terraces. An- 
drew Jackson piped in running 
water. Franklin Pierce in- 
stalled a central heating sys- 
tem. Rutherford B. Hayes 
added the Hrst bathroom and 
first telephone. The elevator 
was James A. Garfield's do- 
ing. Benjamin Harrison 
brought in electricity. Herbert 
Hoover introduced air condi- 
tioning. Despite all these al- 
terations, the greatest changes 
came after the British burned 
the White House in 1814, 
when the State Rooms were 
remodeled in 1902, and during 




the renovation of 1948-52. 
Only the walls were left stand- 
ing after the British burned 
the structure during their brief 
occupation of Washington (as 
shown in the black-and-white 
engraving of British troops 
in the city and in the 1816 
watercolor with St. John's 
Church in the foreground). 
James Hoban, the original 
architect, supervised the re- 
building, which was completed 
in September 1817 during 
James Monroe's administra- 
tion. In 1902 the architec- 
tural firm of McKim, Mead, 
and White supervised the re- 
decoration and recondition- 



ing of the State floor. During 
Harry Truman's administra- 
tion surveys of the structure 
revealed it to be in an alarm- 
ing state of disrepair. The 
Trumans moved across the 
street to Blair House. Panel- 
ing, ceilings, and furniture 
were all removed and stored. 
The interior was gutted, a 
new two-story basement was 
excavated, new foundations 
were laid, a steel framework 
was erected, and everything 
was put back together again. 
Previously Truman had added 
a second story porch to the 
South Portico. The adminis- 
trations of John F. Kennedy, 



Lyndon Johnson, and Richard 
Nixon concentrated on ac- 
quiring antique American fur- 
niture for use in the State 
rooms. During the adminis- 
trations of Gerald Ford and 
Jimmy Carter the emphasis 
turned to finding suitable 
American paintings and por- 
traits. The arrival of Ronald 
Reagan signaled an interest 
in redecorating and refurbish- 
ing the family quarters. Here- 
tofore work in this area had 
been only piecemeal and the 
efforts begun in the recon- 
struction of 1948-52 had never 
been fully realized in the fam- 
ily quarters. 




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85 




The Oval Office 



Alone, the words conjure up a 
host of images. On the one 
hand the term is almost syn- 
onymous with *'White House." 
On the other, it denotes the 
President at work, functioning 
as the Chief Executive of the 
Nation. Here the work of the 
presidency takes place, here 
he meets with his advisers, de- 
termining policy and courses 
of action, work'hig out a legis- 
lative program, and sometimes 
speaking to the Nation. 
Though well known, the term 
Oval Office is a 20th century 
creatibn. Thomas Jefferson 
used what is now the State 



Dming Room and James 
Monroe had an office in the 
adjacent Treasury building. In 
John Quincy Adams' admin- 
istration, the locus of Presi- 
dential power was located in a 
portion of the living quarters 
on the second floor, and it re- 
mained there until the time of 
Theodore Roosevelt when the 
demands for more space by 
the Presidential staff and by 
the family collided. As a part 
of the renovation of the main 
floor that Roosevelt initiated, 
a "temporary'' structure -the 
West Wing -was erected to 
contain offices for his staff. 



An office for the President 
was located here, but he sel- 
dom used it. Seven years later 
the temporary building was 
reconstructed as a permanent 
office and the term "Oval Of- 
fice" dates from this time. On 
Christmas Eve 1929 a fire de- 
stroyed niost of the structure; 
itVas rebuilt the next yean^ ^ 
In 1 934 the West Wing was 
greatly enlarged to meet the 
need for the even larger staff 
that President Eranklin D. 
Roosevelt assembled. With 
some small changes this is the 
W^st Wing and Oval Office 
in use today. Many Presidents, 





including Ronald Reagan, 
have chosen to use the desk 
that Queen Victoria presented 
to Rutherford B. Hayes. It 
made from the timbers of ] 
HMS Resolute, a British ship 
rescued from the pack ice of 
the Arctic Ocean by the Amer- 
ican whalers (shown in a con- 
temporary engraving). 



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St. John's Church 





QThe National Aquarium, U.S. 
Department of Commerce, 
14th Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue, NW. Open 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m. daily. Closed Decem- 
ber 25. Fee, gift shop. 

They feed the piranhas and 
lemon sharks on alternate 
days at 2 p.m. The sea turtles 
waddle at eye level and chil- 
dren can discover the feel of 
starfish, crabs, and other sea 
animals in the Touch Tank. 

O Department of the Treasury, 

15th Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue, NW. 

The Treasury building is 
one of the finest examples of 
Greek Revival architecture 
in America. A statue of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, the first sec- 
retary of the Treasury, stands 
on the south plaza, and one 
of Albert Gallatin, the fourth 
secretary, on the north. No 
public facilities. 



0St. John's Church, 16th and 
H Streets, NW. Open 7 a.m. 
to 7 p.m. daily. Tours are 
given every Sunday after the 
11 a.m. service. 

St. John's was designed by 
Benjamin Latrobe and built 
in 1816. Most Presidents have 
at times attended services. 
President John F. Kennedy, a 
Roman Catholic, once vis- 
ited the rector to continue 
the tradition. The bell in the 
steeple was recast in Paul 
Revere's foundry from a cap- 
tured British cannon. One 
stained glass window is a 
gift from President Chester 
Arthur in memory of his wife 
who had been a member of 
the choir. Arthur asked that 
the window be placed so he 
could see it from the White 
House as the light shone 
through it at night. The parish 
house was once the British 
ambassador's residence. 



QMary McLeod Bethune 
Council House, 1318 Vermont 
Avenue, NW. Open 10 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m. Monday through 
Friday; Saturday, Sunday, and 
holidays by appointment. 

The museum is dedicated to 
the lives and achievements of 
black American women. The 
restored Victorian townhouse 
was declared a national his- 
toric site in 1982 in honor of 
the pioneer black political 
and civil rights leader and 
educator. Bethune, who 
founded the National Coun- 
cil of Negro Women, resided 
here and made this the head- 
quarters of the council. 
Housed here are the National 
Archives for Black Women's 
History. The museum organ- 
izes tours and special pro- 
grams for schoolchildren and 
also serves teachers and 
scholars. The house is a stop 
on the Washington, D.C., 
Black History Trail. 



88 



National Geographic Society 




Bethune Council House 




O Decatur House, 748 Jackson 
Place, NW. Open 10 a.m. to 
2 p.m. Tuesday through Fri- 
day; noon to 4 p.m. Saturday 
and Sunday. Closed Monday 
and holidays. Tours are given 
every half hour. Fee. 

This impressive town- 
house, designed by Benjamin 
Latrobe, was completed in 
1 8 1 9 for Commodore Stephen 
Decatur, a naval hero of the 
Barbary Wars and the War of 
1812. It is an excellent exam- 
ple of a Federal style resi- 
dence and adds to the beauty 
of Lafayette Park. Decatur 
died here after being mor- 
tally wounded in a duel with 
Capt. James Barron in 1820. 
Since that time a number of 
famous people have lived 
here, including Henry Clay, 
Martin Van Buren, and Judah 
P. Benjamin. The National 
Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion has owned the property 
since 1956. 



QThe National Geographic 
Society/ Explorers Hall, 

17th and M Streets, NW. 
Open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mon- 
day through Saturday and 
holidays; 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. on 
Sunday. Closed December 25. 

The headquarters of the 
National Geographic Society 
contains a museum that illus- 
trates some of the society's 
worldwide interests. The fas- 
cinating history of our 
planet — its physical make-up, 
the efforts of humans to ex- 
plore it, and the diverse cul- 
tures of its peoples — is told 
through photographs, videos, 
and dioramas. 



89 



Renwick Gallery, Grand Salon 



The Octagon, Treaty of Ghent desk 









QLafayette Park, directly north 
of the White House. 

In the center of the park is 
a statue of Andrew Jackson 
made from cannon he cap- 
tured during the War of 1812. 
At the corners of the park 
are statues of Thaddeus Kos- 
ciuszko, baron von Steuben, 
the comte de Rochambeau, 
and the marquis de Lafayette. 
The bench where Bernard 
Baruch, adviser to Presidents, 
sat is also marked. 

0Renwick Gallery (Smithson- 
ian Institution), Pennsylvania 
Avenue at 17th Street, NW. 
Open 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
Museum shop. 

This gallery exhibits Amer- 
ican crafts, dating from 1900 
to the present. A room of 
great size on the second floor 
recreates an elegant Victor- 
ian Grand Salon of the 1860s 
and 1870s. Originally this 



building was the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art designed in 
1859 by architect James Ren- 
wick, who had earlier drawn 
up the plans for the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Before 
Corcoran could open his mu- 
seum. Civil War intervened 
and the building became the 
headquarters of the quarter- 
master general. Finally in 
1871 the Corcoran opened its 
doors to its first visitors; the 
museum was a success. By 
the 1890s the Corcoran 
needed more facilities and 
moved to its new building in 
1897. From 1899 to 1964 the 
building housed the U.S. 
Court of C'aims. In 1972, re- 
named for its architect, it 
opened as one of the Smith- 
sonian museums. 




©The Octagon, 1799 New York 
Avenue, NW. Open 10 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. Tuesday through 
Friday; noon to 4 p.m. Satur- 
day and Sunday. Closed Mon- 
days and major holidays. Fee. 
When Col. John Tayloe, III, 
decided to build a new home 
in Washington, he selected 
Dr. William Thornton to cre- 
ate a design for him. The 
Tayloes called it the Octagon 
because of the eight angles in 
the plan. James and Dolley 
Madison lived here for a short 
time after the British burned 
the White House in 1814. In 
the second floor study is the 
desk upon which President 
Madison signed the Treaty 
of Ghent. The American 
Architectural Foundation 
bought the house from the 
Tayloe family in 1902 and 
has since maintained it 
as a museum. 



90 



The Octagon 





;)Corcoran Gallery of Art, 17th 
Street and New York Avenue, 
NW.Open 10a.m. to 4:30 
p.m. Tuesday through Sun- 
day; Thursday until 9 p.m. 
Closed holidays. The gallery 
maintains an extensive pro- 
gram of tours and lectures 
as well as chamber music. 

The Corcoran is especially 
noted for its collection of 
American art. It is also one 
of the oldest art museums in 
the country, having been in- 
corporated the same year— 
1870-as New York City's 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
and the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts. On display are 
vvorks by John Singleton 
Copley, Gilbert Stuart, the 
^eales, Thomas Cole, 
Thomas Eakins, Mary 
lassatt, Albert Bierstadt, 
md Frederic Remington. 
Changing exhibits display 
/orks of contemporary art- 
its and photographers. 



©The American National Red 
Cross, 17th and E Streets, 
NW.Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:45 
p.m. Monday through Fri- 
day. Closed weekends and 
holidays. 

The national headquarters 
of the Red Cross has exhibit 
areas on the ground and main 
floors. The Board of Gover- 
nors Hall has three Tiffany 
windows. 

©Daughters of the American 
Revolution National Society 
Headquarters, 1776 D Street, 
NW. Museum open 8:30 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. Monday through Fri- 
day; 1 to 5 p.m. on Sunday. 
Tours of the period rooms 
10 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Monday 
through Friday. Library open 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Friday; fee for use. 

This is the headquarters for 
descendants of Revolutionary 
War veterans. The library has 
an outstanding genealogical 



collection; it is open to the 
public except for most of the 
month of April when it is re- 
served for members. 

©Organization of American 
States, 17th Street at Con- 
stitution Avenue, NW. Open 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Friday. Closed Sat- 
urday, Sunday, and holidays. 
Group tours may be ar- 
ranged by calling 458-3751 or 
by writing to the Visitors 
Service Unit, Department of 
Public Information. 

Aztec, Mayan, and Inca 
motifs skillfully blended with 
European influences create a 
structure that represents both 
Americas. In the Hall of the 
Americas many international 
meetings and musical recitals 
have been held. 



91 




John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 





©U.S. Department of the Inte- 
rior, 18th and C Streets, NW. 
The museum is open 8 a.m. 
to 4 p.m.; the Indian Craft 
Shop is open 8:30 a.m. to 
4:30 p.m.; and National Park 
Service Information is open 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; all Monday 
through Friday. Closed week- 
ends and holidays. 

Through displays on na- 
tional parks, Native American 
pottery and basketry, water 
power, wildlife, mineralogy, 
and cartography. Interior 
presents its manifold activities 
in the department's museum 
on the first floor of its head- 
quarters building. In the cor- 
ridors of this large office 
building are murals, frescoes, 
relief sculptures in stone, and 
paintings— some of the finest 
Depression-era public art in 
the country. 



®U.S. Department of State, 

2201 C Street, NW. When not 
being used for official func- 
tions, the diplomatic recep- 
tion rooms are open for tours 
by reservation, Monday 
through Friday. For informa- 
tion contact the Tour Office, 
647-3421. 

Within this mid-20th cen- 
tury office building, the floor 
that houses the diplomatic 
reception rooms is very much 
in the style of the 18th and 
early 19th centuries. The 
rooms are filled with rare 
examples of the finest Ameri- 
can furniture, paintings, 
lighting fixtures, and the dec- 
orative arts. The desk at 
which John Adams, Benja- 
min Franklin, and John Jay 
signed the Treaty of Paris for 
the United States is in the 
John Ouincy Adams State 
Drawing Room along with 
Benjamin West's painting 
depicting the event. 



©The .John F. Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts, 2700 
F Street, NW. Open 10 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. daily. Box office 
open 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. Mon- 
day through Saturday; noon 
to 9 p.m. Sunday and holi- 
days. Tours of the theaters 
lasting 40 minutes are given 
10 a.m. to 1 p.m. daily by the 
Friends of the Kennedy Cen- 
ter. Parking is on three lower 
levels with free parking for 
people buying or picking up 
tickets. 

More than 200 years ago 
President George Washing- 
ton urged that a national cul- 
tural center be planned for 
the new national capital. In 
1958 President Dwight D. 
Eisenhower signed legislation 
authorizing its establishment. 
In the outpouring of grief 
and affection after President 
John Kennedy's assassination 
in 1963, the center was named 
in his memory. Some funds 



92 



Three Servicemen's Statue, Vietnam Veterans Memorial 
©F.E. Hartand WMF, Inc., 1984 




were appropriated for con- 
struction and work got un- 
derway in 1966. The center 
opened officially on Septem- 
ber 8, 1977, and performances 
have been staged ever since. 
The Center contains the 
Eisenhower Theater for plays 
and dramatic performances; 
the Opera House for ballet, 
opera, and musical theater; 
the Concert Hall for musical 
performances; the American 
Film Institute Theater for 
screening movies; and the 
Terrace Theater for cham- 
ber music and small dance, 
dramatic productions, or con- 
cert presentations. 



^Vietnam Veterans Memorial, 

Constitution Gardens, NW. 
Open 24 hours a day. 

The Vietnam Veterans 
Fund was incorporated April 
27, 1979, to establish a me- 
morial to those men and 
women who served and died 
during the Vietnam War. The 
members of the Fund wished 
to create a memorial that 
would be contemplative in 
character, that would harmo- 
nize with its surroundings, 
that would contain the names 
of all who died or remain 
missing, and that would make 
no political statement about 
the war. Money was raised 
from private groups and indi- 
viduals to finance the design 
and construction of the me- 
morial; no public funds were 
used. The design competition 
was won by Maya Ying Lin, 
who in 1981 was an architec- 
ture student at Yale Univer- 
sity. The memorial is built of 



polished black granite set into 
the ground in the form of a 
"V" with one arm pointing 
toward the Lincoln Memo- 
rial and the other toward the 
Washington Monument. The 
names are in the chronologi- 
cal order of the date of the 
casualty from the first deaths 
in 1959 until the last ones in 
1975. Altogether 58, 156 names 
are inscribed on the memori- 
al's walls. A statuary group of 
three young soldiers by sculp- 
tor Frederick Hart stands at 
the entry to the memorial. 
The memorial was dedicated 
November 13, 1982. It has 
become one of the most vis- 
ited spots in Washington. 



93 



««;k«s«ws»-';«s*''-- ■■ ii-0m&;.. 



Coming to Terms with History 



■Jh. li,-^ 



The Vietnam War made an 
indelible impression on most 
Americans 15 years or older 
in 1965 whether or not they 
were directly involved in the 
war. As days, weeks, months, 
and years have gone by since 
the war ended, people have 
begun to look back at those 
times, trying to make sense 
of what went on and trying to 
live with the legacy that sur- 
vives. The Vietnam Veterans 
Memorial, on the Mall be- 
tween the Lincoln Memorial 
and Constitution Gardens, 
has been a focal point of this 
reconciliation process as we 



mourn the loss of young men 
and women and attempt to 
comprehend what this loss has 
meant for the future of our 
Nation. Family members, 
friends, and acquaintances 
make the pilgrimage to Find 
the name of a loved one carved 
onto this wall. Many take rub- 
bings of the name on a piece of 
paper to take home with them. 
They leave notes, pictures, 
snapshots, flowers, a child- 
hood toy, a high school reun- 
ion program -all mementos 
of either family life or friend- 
ship. And those who know no 
one whose name appears on 



this wall come, too, to re- 
member those times that af- 
fected us all, and to come to 
terms with their emotions as 
well. The volunteers who work 
here assisting the National 
Park Service have become the 
living embodiment of this rec- 
onciliation process. By help- 
ing people locate a name ^ 
and by providing information 
about the memorial itself, they 
bring the memorial and peo- 
ple together as citizens from 
across the Nation come at all 
hours of the day to pay their 
respects to those who lost 
their lives in this war. The 



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effect of seeing a name you 

know and of seeing all the 

y names is powerful beyond ex- 

f pectation. The process of heal- 

„; ing so hoped for by the people 

who planned this memorial 

has taken firm root here. 




The Washington Monument, flags snapping in the breeze 




^The Washington Monument, 

15th Street and Constitution 
Avenue, NW. Open 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m. daily with extended 
summer hours for splendid 
nighttime views of the city. 
Elevator is the only way up 
or down. Walking tours down 
the steps to see the memorial 
stones are given at 10 a.m. 
and 3 p.m., staff permitting. 
On the monument grounds is 
the Sylvan Theater, an open- 
air stage used for theatrical 
productions. 

Proposals for honoring 
George Washington were 
made with growing regularity 



after his death in 1799. 
L'Enfant had included plans 
for an equestrian statue of 
Washington at the intersec- 
tion of the Capitol's east-west 
axis and the White House's 
north-south axis as a part of 
his design, but Washington 
had rejected it. The idea sur- 
faced in 1816,1819,1824, 
1825, and 1832. the centen- 
nial of his birth. The collapse 
of the 1832 proposal led 
George Watterston, the Li- 
brarian of Congress, to found 
the Washington National 
Monument Society to raise 
money and construct the me- 



morial. A competition for a 
design was won by Robert 
Mills, whose plan called for a 
shaft 600 feet high surrounded 
at its base by a circular build- 
ing that was to serve as a 
national pantheon containing 
statues of notable figures in 
American history. Atop the 
door Mills planned to install 
a huge figure of Washington 
driving a chariot. Meanwhile 
the fund-raising lagged, and 
Congress balked at providing 
federal land. In 1848, how- 
ever, these problems were re- 
solved and ground was bro- 
ken. Work had proceeded to 



96 




the 152-foot level by 1854, 
when the "Know Nothings," 
an anti-Catholic, anti-foreign 
political party seized the mon- 
ument because Pope Pius IX 
had sent a block of marble 
from Rome's Temple of Con- 
cord to be set into the inte- 
rior wall with other memorial 
stones from foreign, state, and 
local governments and pri- 
vate organizations. The pa- 
pal stone disappeared, and 
work on the monument also 
stopped. Work resumed in 
1876 and proceeded at a good 
pace. The monument was 
dedicated February 21, 1885, 



with Robert Winthrop, who 
had spoken at the laying of 
the cornerstone 40 years ear- 
lier, giving the address. It was 
opened October 9, 1888. As 
it stands today the Washing- 
ton Monument is a hollow 
obelisk, a four-sided pillar that 
tapers as it rises 555 feet and 
ends in a pyramid. It is one of 
the largest masonry struc- 
tures in the world. Most of 
the stone is from Maryland. 
When work resumed on the 
monument in 1876, marble 
from the Maryland quarry 
could not be obtained, so 
matching marble v/as found 



in Massachusetts and laid for 
13 courses. The Maryland 
marble again became avail- 
able and was used to finish 
off the remainder of the mon- 
ument. The new marble, how- 
ever, has weathered to a 
slightly different shade, mak- 
ing it easy to see the two 
different stages of construc- 
tion. The top of the monu- 
ment is a 100-ounce cap of 
aluminum, the largest piece 
cast to that time. 



97 



Thomas Jefferson Memorial, cherry trees in full bloom 




^Thomas Jefferson Memorial, 

East Basin Drive, SW. Open 
daily 8 a.m. to midnight. 

In 1934 Congress created 
the Thomas Jefferson Memo- 
rial Commission to find a lo- 
cation, develop a design, and 
supervise the construction of 
a memorial to the third Presi- 
dent in the Nation's Capital. 
Despite its high-minded goal, 
the commission encountered 
challenges at almost every 
step along the way. Today 
the site on the Tidal Basin, 
south of the White House, 
seems inspired, but it was 
arrived at only after the re- 



jection of proposed locations 
on the Mall, in Lincoln Park, 
and on the banks of the Ana- 
costia River. Disagreements 
about the design of the me- 
morial erupted immediately. 
Other opposition arose be- 
cause some cherry trees had 
to be removed before con- 
struction could begin. On De- 
cember 15, 1938, President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt partic- 
ipated in the groundbreaking 
ceremony, and one year later 
the cornerstone was laid. On 
Jefferson's 200th birthday, 
April 13, 1943, the memorial 
was dedicated. Because of the 



scarcity of metal in the midst 
of World War II, the statue 
of Jefferson was first made of 
plaster; it was replaced with 
a bronze statue, as originally 
specified, on April 25, 1947. 
The Jefferson memorial re- 
flects the essence of the man 
whom it honors. The grace- 
ful, domed building is the 
architectural shape Jefferson 
used in desiging his own 
home, Monticello, and the 
University of Virginia. The 
memorial design is by John 
Russell Pope whose work in 
Washington includes the 
National Archives and the 



98 



1- 





■■*-v '■ - 


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'p 


^-<. 




H 




fo 




National Gallery of Art, West 
Building. Pope died before 
construction began and the 
final design work was done 
by Otto Eggers and Daniel 
Higgins. The heroic statue 
was sculpted by Rudulph 
Evans. Inscribed on four 
panels along the interior 
walls are selections from Jef- 
ferson's writings on liberty. 
The first panel contains ex- 
cerpts from the Declaration 
of Independence. The sec- 
ond is from his Virginia 
Statute of Religious Freedom. 
The third is about slavery 
and the fourth about the need 



for accepting change in a de- 
mocracy. The beauty of the 
memorial on the banks of the 
Tidal Basin is heightened 
each spring when the Japa- 
nese cherry trees bloom. In 
1909 Mrs. William Howard 
Taft became interested in 
planting Japanese cherries in 
Potomac Park. Through the 
efforts of Dr. Jokichi Taka- 
mine.the discoverer of adren- 
alin, the City of Tokyo 
presented some 3,000 flower- 
ing cherry trees to the City of 
Washington. The first two 
trees were planted by Mrs. 
Taft and Viscountess Chinda, 



wife of the Japanese ambas- 
sador, on March 27, 1912. 
Also on the grounds are a 
Japanese lantern more than 
300 years old and a pagoda, 
both given by the Japanese in 
honor of Commodore Mat- 
thew Perry's mission to Japan 
in 1854. In recent years, older 
trees that die have been 
replaced with donations from 
individual and corporate 
patrons. 



99 



The Lincoln Memorial, the Civil War President 




^Lincoln Memorial, foot of 
23rd Street, NW. The memo- 
rial is always open and a Park 
Service ranger is on duty 8 
a.m. to midnight daily, ex- 
cept December 25. 

There never was any ques- 
tion that there should be a 
memorial to Lincoln, but 
where to put it, and what it 
should be were questions that 
caused much debate. The 
present location at the west 
end of the Mall, balancing 
the Capitol on the east, seems 
logical today, but at the turn 
of the century the site was a 
swampy wasteland. The in- 



fant automobile industry 
pushed for a federal highway 
from Washington, D.C., to 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
lined with statues and com- 
memorative structures 
erected by the states. In 1911, 
the Lincoln Memorial Com- 
mission chaired by President 
William Howard Taft began 
work. For a site, the commis- 
sion chose West Potomac 
Park, which had been drained 
and reclaimed from the Poto- 
mac River. Shortly afterwards 
the commission decided upon 
Henry Bacon as the archi- 
tect. The cornerstone was laid 



February 12, 1915. As work 
on the foundation proceeded, 
the commissioners searched 
for a sculptor and eventually 
agreed upon Daniel Chester 
French. French wrestled with 
the problem of how to pre- 
sent the figure of Lincoln. 
Should it be a standing fig- 
ure, and, if so, what pose 
would be best? Or would a 
seated figure be more appro- 
priate to the structure? Fi- 
nally French settled on a 
seated figure brooding over 
the burdens of the Civil War. 
The original specifications 
called for a 10-foot-high fig- 



100 




ure, but French soon realized 
that a statue that size would 
be dwarfed in Bacon's tem- 
ple. Doubling the figure 
solved the problem. The Lin- 
coln Memorial's classic white 
marble structure is designed 
in the style of a Greek tem- 
ple but with its entrance on 
the east side instead of at 
either end. Carved on the 
walls are the Gettysburg Ad- 
dress and Lincoln's Second 
Inaugural. The 36 marble col- 
umns represent the States of 
the Union at the time of Lin- 
coln's death, and the names 
of these states are carved on 



the frieze above the columns. 
The names of the 48 states in 
the Union when the memo- 
rial was completed in 1922 
are carved on the walls above 
the frieze. A plaque honoring 
the subsequent entry of 
Alaska and Hawaii is in the 
approach plaza. On the day 
of dedication, May 30, 1922, 
more than 50,000 people ar- 
rived for the ceremonies. 
Among the notables was 
Robert Todd Lincoln, the 
only surviving son of the 
President. Since that day the 
memorial has become a na- 
tional forum — the setting for 



celebrations, for the airing 
of grievances, and for 
commemorations. 

^Constitution Gardens, Con- 
stitution Avenue and 17th 
Street, NW. 

On the north side of the 
Lincoln Memorial reflecting 
pool, landscaped gardens, 
meandering footpaths, and a 
lake have replaced tempo- 
rary office buildings that 
stood here for almost 50 
years. On an island in the 
lake is a memorial to the 
Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. 



101 



Pushing L'Enf ant's Dream to a Conclusion 





When Pierre L'Enfant drew 
up his plan for Washington 
(see pages 50-51), the Poto- 
mac shoreline roughly fol- 
lowed Constitution Avenue, 
17th Street, and Maine Ave- 
Ihue, so his design stopped at 
the river's edge. Beyond were 
marshes and tidal mudflats 
that were awash at high tide 
(as is indicated in the 1855 
pen and ink drawing showing 
the unflnished VVashington 
Monument with the Smith- 
sonian Building and the 
^C apitol in the distance and a 
^sherm^n in the foreground). 
For years little attention was 



paid to L'Enfant's Plan, and it 
was honored more by inaction 



dredged to a depth that would 
allow boats to moor at the 



than by direction. The swamps foot of Maine Avenue, and 



and marshes sat there for 
years, almost in the heart of 
the city. Finally in 1881 Con- 



the Tidal Basin had been con- 
structed so as to keep the 
water in the channel from 



gress appropriated money tffiW'^ becoming stagnant, in 1911 a 



dredge out the Potomac and 
use the muck brought up from 
the river's bottom to fill the 
marshes and mudflats and 



site in West Potomac Park in 
line with the Capitol was se- 
lected for the Lincoln Memo- 
rial. As this new land was 



raise them above the high tide created the initial idea was 
line. By the time this project that it would simply be a 



ended around the turn of the 
century, both West and East 
Potomac Parks had been cre- 
ated, the Washington Chan- 
nel and the Potomac had been 



westward extension of the 
Mali's greensward. The ideal 
was a long time in being 
achieved, for during World 
Wars I and 11 "temporary" 






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office builc—^^ 

on these new lands for the 
business of running a govern- 
ment in wartime. Not until 
the mid-1970s did the last of 
these temporary structures 
come down. Then President 
Richard Nixon proposed that 
the area be developed as Con- 
stitution Gardens (shown 
here) in honor of the Nation's 
bicentennial. Today from the 
steps of the Capitol to the 
shores of the Potomac at the 
foot of the Lincoln Memorial 
almost two miles away, the 
Mall sweeps in the grand style 
L'Enfant envisioned. 



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The downtown and Mall are 
the Washington that we all 
know about, and it is the one 
that most of us come to see. 
But, beyond this monumental 
core lies an area rich with ex- 
citing museums, historic 
homes. Civil War battlefields, 
lovely gardens, ethereal 
churches, parks for children, 
and natural wonders. In the 
following pages you no doubt 
will find something to tanta- 
lize you and amplify your trip 
to Washington. 

The sites listed here are in 
the District of Columbia and 
in nearby Virginia and Mary- 



land and keyed to the map at 
left. Many of these sites can 
be reached by public trans- 
portation, but almost as many 
are accessible only by private 
vehicle. While you travel from 
one site to another, keep an 
eye on the landscape, for the 
Washington area lies across 
the fall line, that point at 
which interior rivers fall to 
sea level along the East Coast. 
Thus parts of the area— to the 
south and east— lie in the flat 
coastal plain while the rest is 
in the rolling Piedmont. 

Development has over- 
whelmed several historic 



towns, but if you look hard 
enough you can usually find 
signs of their roots. Street 
and road names, too, give 
clues to their past: Little 
River Turnpike and Jones 
Mill Road to mention just 
two. And if you get lost, do 
not despair. Area residents 
are conscious that this city 
belongs to the entire Nation 
and will try to send you off in 
the right direction, unless 
they themselves are among 
the many newcomers who are 
just learning their way 
around, too. 



Beyond Downtown 

Anacostia Museum 
I Armed Forces Medical 
Museum 

I Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
National Historical Park 
I Columbia Historical Society 
I Dumbarton Oaks 
Fort Dupont Park 
Frederick Douglass NHS 



O Georgetown 

A Hillwood 

^ The Islamic Center 

(^ Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens 

The National Shrine of the 

Immaculate Conception 
(£) National Zoological Park 
(Jy Naval Observatory 
(^ Navy Memorial Museum 



(J) Old Stone House 
QThe Phillips Collection 
(J) Rock Creek Park 
0The Textile Museum 
^U.S. National Arboretum 
^Washington Cathedral 
0The Washington Post 
^ Woodrow Wilson House 



Nearby Maryland 

J) Clara Barton National 

Historic Site 
^Fort Washington 
^Glen Echo Park 
Ti Great Falls Tavern 



^Greenbelt Park 
^National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration 
National Capital Trolley 

Museum 



0Oxon Hill Farm 
^ Piscaiaway Park and the 
National Colonial Farm 



Nearby Virginia 

T| Alexandria 

T^ Arlington House 

^ Arlington National Cemetery 

^The Athenaeum 

^ Carlyle House 

^ Claude Moore Colonial Farm 

^ Friendship Fire Engine 
Company 

\ 5 George Washington Memo- 
rial Parkway 

i ) George Washington Masonic 
National Memorial 

( ^ Great Falls Park 

( ^ Gunston Hall Plantation 



Q Lee-Fendall House 

^ The Lyceum 

m Lyndon Baines Johnson Me- 
morial Grove on the Potomac 

Manassas National Battlefield 
Park 

m Mount Vernon 

ff) The Pentagon 

^ Prince William Forest Park 

^ Boyhood Home of Robert E. 
Lee 

^ Stabler Leadbeater Apothe- 
cary Shop 

^ Theodore Roosevelt Island 



® U.S. Marine Corps War Me- 
morial and the Netherlands 
Carillon 

^Washington's Grist Mill His- 
torical State Park 

^ Wolf Trap Farm Park 

0Woodlawn Plantation and the 
Pope-Leighey House 



105 



Beyond Downtown 



C&O Canal (left) and 
Dumbarton Oaks (below) 





Nearly everyone is familiar with the great national 
memorials; they are the images that come to mind 
when someone talks about going to Washington. But 
away from this monumental core exists a normal, 
middle-sized, American city of neighborhoods, private 
museums, places of worship, shops and stores, restau- 
rants, and schools. Some of the places described on 
the following pages evoke a sense of Washington as a 
city of more than 650,000 people who share the aspi- 
rations and dreams of their fellow citizens across the 
Nation. These places are just suggestions of what can 
be found throughout the city. Some of the places 
mentioned are stops on the Black History Trail that 
weaves through the city linking a number of sites 
important to the history of black Americans. The 
Civil War forts that ringed the city can be found in 
varying states of preservation in the Fort Circle Parks. 
Other sites will give you a glimpse into special collec- 
tions, architecturally significant structures, and his- 
toric places that have much to offer. Without doubt 
your explorations will introduce you to much that will 
delight you beyond these sites, whether it is enjoying 
a meal at a small cafe, or lazing away a few hours. 



O Anacostia Museum (Smith- 
sonian Institution), 1901 Fort 
Place, SE. Open 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. daily. Closed 
December 25. 

The museum, located in the 
historic Anacostia section 
of Southeast Washington, 
presents exhibits on the 
history and culture of 
Afro-Americans. 

O Armed Forces Medical Mu- 
seum, 14th and DahHa 

Streets, NW (Walter Reed 
Army Medical Center). Open 
9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Mon- 
day through Friday and 1 1 :30 
a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Saturday, 
Sunday, and holidays. Closed 
January 1 , Thanksgiving, De- 
cember 24, 25, and 31. 

The museum opened in 
1862 and has many historical 
artifacts and anatomical spec- 
imens. Current exhibits focus 
on public health problems, 
such as AIDS. 



106 



Fort Dupont Park 



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^Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
National Historical Park, 

ticket office on first floor of 
the Foundry Building on the 
canal between 30th and 
Thomas Jefferson Streets, 
NW. Open Wednesday 
through Sunday mid-April 
through mid-October. 

In season, boat trips of 
varying lengths leave from 
lock 2 at the Foundry Build- 
ing. Check there for detailed 
information. 

1} Columbia Historical Society, 

1307 New Hampshire Ave- 
nue, NW. Library open 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m. Wednesday, 
Friday, and Saturday. Tours 
noon to 4 p.m. Wednesday 
through Saturday. Closed 
Sundays, Mondays, and 
holidays. 

The society has programs 
and a library on the history 
of the District of Columbia. 
The building is the former 




mansion of Christian Heurich, 
who made a fortune brewing 
beer in Washington. 

ODumbarton Oaks, 1703 32nd 
Street, NW. Open 2 to 5 p.m. 
Tuesday through Sunday. 
Closed holidays. Museum 
shop. Fee for visiting the 
gardens only. 

Situated at the edge of 
Georgetown and named for 
the Rock of Dumbarton in 
Scotland, this estate most re- 
cently belonged to Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss who 
left it to Harvard University. 
It is now a research center 
dedicated to Byzantine stud- 
ies. This was the site of the 
conference that laid the 
groundwork for the United 
Nations. Visitors may walk 
through a series of landscaped 
gardens of remarkable vari- 
ety and charm. A small gal- 
lery displays a collection of 
pre-Columbian treasures. 



OFort Dupont Park, Minne- 
sota and Massachusetts Ave- 
nue, SE. Open daily. 

This is the site of one of 
Washington's Civil War forts. 
Today it is an expansive play- 
ground with tennis and bas- 
ketball courts, Softball fields, 
and other playing fields. 
There are biking and hiking 
trails, picnic areas, and other 
recreational facilities. The 
Activity Center has a wide 
variety of programs. To find 
the remains of the Civil War 
fort for which this park is 
named, follow the path from 
the parking lot at the Fort 
Dupont Activity Center. Signs 
will direct you to the remains 
of the earthworks that sit atop 
a ridge. The original fort was 
six-sided, each side 100 feet 
long. 



107 



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Fort Circle Parks 




Washington, D.C., was in a 
precarious position when the 
Civil War began in 1861. 
Technically Virginia, across 
the river, was a foreign coun- 
try, and many Marylanders, 
to the north, eist, and west of 
the city, favored secession. 
Southerners looked upon the 
city us a prize whose capture 
might guarantee independence 
for the Cojifederacy. North- 
erners regarded the city as the 



108 



symbol of national authority 
and supremacy that had to be 
defended. Fort Washington, 
12 miles down the Potomac 
opposite Mount Vernon, was 
the sole fortification guarding 
the city in 1861, and it was 
decrepit and outmoded. By 
the time the war ended four 
years later a ring of 68 forts 
and 93 batteries with 837 guns 
surrounded the city and guard- 
ed its approaches. In July 



1 864, troops from Fort . ^ 

Stevens stopped Confederate ||| 
troops that were riding into 
the District of Columbia near 
today's Georgia Avenue and 
Somerset Place, NW, in a bat- 
tle watched by President Lin- 
coln. No other fort saw action 
during the war. Today these 
forts and batteries are all being 
maintained as park areas. Any 
historic remains are being pre- 
served. Some are used as play 



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areas, others remain as plots 
of green amidst the urban 
sprawl. Many forts still retain 
a hint of their original shape 
through vague grassy outlines 
on the ground. A few, such as 
Fort Stevens and Fort Foote 
(left), have been partially re- 
built. Collectively they are 
known as the Fort Circle 
Parks and are administered 
by National Capital Region of 
the National Park Service. 



109 



Frederick Douglass' Study 



A street in Georgetown 





O Frederick Douglass National 
Historic Site, 1411 W Street, 
SE. Open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
daily. Closed January 1 and 
December 25. 

Frederick Douglass was 
born a slave either in 1817 or 
1818 in Talbot County, Mary- 
land. He escaped bondage in 
1838 and went on to become 
one of the most eloquent 
leaders of the abolitionist 
movement. After the struggle 
for emancipation was finally 
won, Douglass continued his 
fight for equal rights and held 
high positions in the Federal 
Government. He eventually 
settled in this handsome 
house with a commanding 
view of the city. The house is 
maintained by the National 
Park Service as a museum to 
his memory and contains 
many interesting artifacts of 
his life, including his compre- 
hensive library. 



110 



©Georgetown, centered on 
M Street and Wisconsin Ave- 
nue, NW. 

Originally Georgetown 
was one of three cities— the 
others were Alexandria and 
Washington — within the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. In 1871 , it 
was incorporated into the 
city of Washington. Today 
Georgetown is a community 
of beautiful 18th- and 19th- 
century townhouses. Wiscon- 
sin Avenue and M Street are 
the main commercial streets. 
The surrounding tree-lined 
streets are ideal for leisurely 
walking tours. Anywhere you 
choose to walk will be re- 
warding, for the structures 
illustrate the wide range of 
architecture popular in Wash- 
ington throughout the years. 
Local bookstores carry guides 
to the area, some of which 
contain suggested walking 
tours and detailed informa- 
tion about the area. 



QHillwood, 4155 Linnean Ave- 
nue, NW. A limited number 
of two-hour tours are given 
every day except Tuesday and 
Sunday. Reservations are 
required; call 686-5807. Fee. 
Hillwood was the home of 
Marjorie Merriweather Post, 
the heiress to the General 
Foods fortune and promoter 
of frozen foods. Hillwood sits 
amidst azaleas, rhododen- 
drons, and dogwoods whose 
blooms burst forth in the 
Washington springtime, a 
delight to the eye. 

©The Islamic Center, 2551 
Massachusetts Avenue, NW. 
Open 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. 
Proper dress is required when 
entering: arms and legs must 
be covered and shoes must 
be removed. 

The interior of the mosque, 
a center for worship and 
learning, is a treasury of 
Islamic artwork. 



II 



Kenilwori^ Aquatic Gardens 



The National Shrine 





Islamic Center 




QKenilworth Aquatic Gardens, 

Anacostia Avenue and Doug- 
lass Street, NE. Open daily. 
Closed December 25 and 
January 1. Picnic tables are 
available. National Park 
Service naturalists conduct 
nature walks in the gardens 
on summer weekends. 

In 1882 W.B.Shaw planted 
some water lilies from his 
home in Maine at his new 
home on the Anacostia River. 
This inauspicious event was 
the beginning of a vast enter- 
prise. Today's garden includes 
specimens from around the 
world. The ponds, marshes, 
and the Anacostia estuary 
provide habitats for water- 
fowl and small mammals. The 
display is particularly strik- 
ing in mid-June when some 
70 varieties of day-blooming 
lilies are at their peak, and 
again in July and August 
when the day- and night- 
blooming varieties open. 



0The National Shrine of the 
Immacuilate Conception, 4th 

Street and Michigan Avenue, 
NE. Open daily; tours 
throughout the day. 

This is the largest Roman 
Catholic church in the United 
States and the seventh largest 
church in the world. The 
shrine is both massive in size 
and rich in detail. The tower 
houses a 56-bell carillon. The 
shrine has chapels scattered 
throughout. The upper 
church is marked by towering 
walls, while the crypt captures 
the spirit of the Roman cata- 
combs. Among the shrine's 
treasures are three magnifi- 
cent mosaics: "Christ in Maj- 
esty," in the north apse, and 
reproductions of Murillo's 
"Immaculate Conception," 
and Titian's "Assumption of 
the Virgin." The latter two 
mosaics were gifts to the 
United States from Vatican 
City. 



Ill 



Pandas in the National Zoo 



A summer day at the Zoo 




National Zoological Park 

(Smithsonian Institution), 
3000 Connecticut Avenue, 
NW. Open daily. May 1 
through September 13: 
grounds 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.; 
animal houses 9 a.m. to 6 
p.m. September 16 through 
April 30: grounds 8 a.m. 
to 6 p.m.; animal houses 
9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Closed 
December 25. 

The Zoo was established 
by Congress in 1889 when a 
collection of North Ameri- 
can animals housed behind 
the Smithsonian "Castle" on 
the Mall was moved to the 
wooded slopes of Rock Creek 
valley. Enhanced by special 
expeditions, gifts, and ex- 
changes, the collection now 
contains approximately 4,000 
animals representing about 
500 species from around the 
world. Included are the fa- 
mous giant pandas from 
China, a magnificent white ti- 



ger from India, and Aldabra 
tortoises. For many years 
Smokey the Bear, the symbol 
of forest fire prevention, was 
the Zoo's most famous in- 
habitant. Today his successor 
resides here. Such familiar 
animals as sea lions, mon- 
keys, elephants, and a variety 
of reptiles are represented as 
well as such exotic creatures 
as scimitar-horned oryxes, 
golden lion tamarins, African 
bongos, and Galapagos tor- 
toises. There is a spectacular 
birdhouse where the birds fly 
freely in a walk-through out- 
door cage. Recent renova- 
tions have been carried out 
with emphasis on enclosures 
that resemble natural habi- 
tats. Besides its role as a place 
where people go to see the 
animals, the National Zoo 
does research in the fields of 
animal health and behavior 
and promotes the breeding 
of endangered species. 




Orangutan 







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112 



The Old Ctone House, garden side 




5 Naval Observatory, 34th 
Street and Massachusetts Av- 
enue, NW. The only tours of 
the observatory are given on 
Monday — 7:30 p.m. (standard 
time) or 8:30 p.m. (dayhght 
savings time) — to the first 100 
persons who show up at the 
34th Street gate. The tour 
lasts about two hours and is 
not recommended for chil- 
dren under 12. No tours on 
holidays. 

The observatory is the 
Navy's oldest scientific office 
dating back to 1830, when it 
was created out of the office 
that cared for navigational 
equipment and prepared 
charts. The building itself 
dates from 1893, and its larg- 
est telescope is a 26-inch re- 
fractor more than 100 years 
old. Today the observatory 
provides accurate astronomi- 
cal time and tracks the move- 
ments of the sun, moon, stars, 
and planets. 



(gNavy Memorial Museum, 

Washington Navy Yard, 
1st and M Streets, SE. Open 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Friday and 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. Saturday. Sunday, 
and hoHdays. Closed January 
1 , Thanksgiving, and Decem- 
ber 25. Enter 9th Street Gate. 

The museum is housed in 
one of the buildings of a 
remodeled 19th-century gun 
factory. The collection docu- 
ments the history of the U.S. 
Navy from the days of the 
Revolutionary War to the 
present. Currently thousands 
of naval objects— ship mod- 
els, weapons, portraits, maps, 
medals, flags, and special 
displays — are exhibited in the 
waterfront museum building 
and in two outdoor parks. 
Some exhibits are of the "Do 
Touch" variety, enabling you 
to look through periscopes 
or to aim a gun using the 
range finder. 



©Old Stone House, 3051 M 
Street, NW. Open 9:30 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. daily. Closed Jan- 
uary 1 and December 25. 

This is the oldest surviving 
building in the District of Co- 
lumbia and is representative 
of Georgetown in the Revo- 
lutionary War period when it 
was a small, commercial vil- 
lage. Today the Old Stone 
House has been restored and 
furnished to reflect those 
times and the life of working- 
class people. The flower gar- 
den behind the house is an 
oasis of beauty and calm 
amidst the bustle and noise 
of Georgetown. 



113 



The Phillips Collection 



Rock Creek Park, 
Boulder Bridge in the fall 





©The Phillips Collection, 1600 
21st Street, NW. Open 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. Tuesday through 
Saturday and 2 to 7 p.m. Sun- 
day. Closed Mondays, Janu- 
ary 1 , July 4, Thanksgiving, 
and December 25. Gift shop. 
Afternoon concerts are given 
every Sunday from Septem- 
ber through May at 5 p.m. 

In 1896 the Phillips family, 
left the hard winters of Pitts- 
burgh for the milder climate 
of Washington, D.C. Twenty- 
five years later Duncan Phil- 
lips opened the doors of the 
family's new home as a pub- 
lic art museum. At the time 
this was the only museum in 
the United States dedicated 
to displaying contemporary 
art— works of the late-19th 
and early-20th centuries. Phil- 
lips also included paintings 
by earlier artists whose ef- 
forts he perceived as possess- 
ing the same innovative 
qualities. Today the Phillips 



Collection contains more 
than 2,500 pieces of art- 
most selected by the Phillips 
family. The same structure, 
plus additions, contains the 
collection today. Comforta- 
ble chairs in all the rooms 
make possible the lengthy 
observation of a favorite pic- 
ture. While Van Gogh, 
Monet, Braque, Degas, 
Rothko, and Picasso are all 
represented, the acknowl- 
edged "star" of the collection 
is Renoir's "Luncheon of the 
Boating Party." Most muse- 
ums in Washington receive 
tax support, but this is a nota- 
ble example of private financ- 
ing and personal art selection. 



©Rock Creek Park. The Na- 
ture Center is open 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Tuesday through Sun- 
day. Closed holidays. Pierce 
Mill is open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Wednesday through Sunday. 
Closed holidays. 

From the northern bound- 
ary of the city to the National 
Zoo, Rock Creek Park is a 
great green wedge aimed at 
the city's center. It is one of 
the Nation's earliest large, city 
parks. This oasis grew out of 
a search for a new location 
for the White House shortly 
after the Civil War. The hope 
was to find a place in a higher, 
healthier situation with suita- 
ble grounds for a parklike 
setting. Maj. Nathaniel Mic- 
hel, the person given the as- 
signment by Secretary of War 
Edwin Stanton, ended up sep- 
arating the assignment into 
two questions and devoting 
most of his attention to study- 
ing possible areas for a park 



114 




rather than a new location for 
the White House. He focused 
on Rock Creek Valley claim- 
ing it to be pure fortune that 
an area of such outstanding 
beauty was so close to the 
offices of government. 
Though a bill establishing a 
park along the lines Michel 
proposed passed the Senate 
it failed in the House. It was 
not until more than 20 years 
later that efforts to establish 
the park met with success. 
President Benjamin Harrison 
signed the legislation Septem- 
ber 27, 1890- within a few 
days of establishing Sequoia, 
Kings Canyon, and Yosemite 
national parks. From the time 
of its creation until the Na- 
tional Park Service assumed 
its administration in 1933, the 
park was run by the U.S. 
Army through a Board of 
Control. In 1917 the Board 
ordered a report for the fu- 
ture development of the park 



from the Olmsted Brothers, 
Inc., whose founder, Freder- 
ick Law Olmsted, had been 
responsible for the develop- 
ment of Central Park in New 
York City. The plan was fin- 
ished the next year and be- 
came the basis for work in 
the park. Above all Rock 
Creek Park is a large chunk 
of wilderness within the Na- 
tion's Capital. In its valley, 
beneath its canopy of trees 
live birds, small animals, and 
wildflowers. The wildflowers 
begin blooming as early as 
late February and continue 
on through the spring and 
summer. In April thousands 
of naturalized daffodils grace 
the slopes of the valley, espe- 
cially in the lower stretches 
of the park south of Massa- 
chusetts Avenue. In the fall 
the hardwood trees turn var- 
ying shades of red, orange, 
and gold. Besides being a bit 
of wilderness in the city the 



park offers picnic areas, hik- 
ing trails, horseback riding, 
bicycling, tennis courts, an 
18-hole golf course, playing 
fields, the Rock Creek Na- 
ture Center, a planetarium, 
and Pierce Mill. On Satur- 
days, Sundays, and holidays. 
Beach Drive between Mili- 
tary and Broad Branch Road 
is closed to all but bicycles 
during the daylight hours. 
This is a part of a bike trail 
that connects parklands in 
Maryland with Mount Ver- 
non in Virginia — one of the 
longest urban bike trails in 
the United States. From July 
through Labor Day the Car- 
ter Barron Amphitheater of- 
fers entertainment. Rock 
Creek Park provides Wash- 
ingtonians with almost instant 
access to an environment that 
few cities can offer their in- 
habitants. On these terms it 
is a treasure and it is per- 
ceived as such. 



115 



U.S. National Arboretum, springtime blooms 







© The Textile Museum, 2320 S 
Street, NW. Open 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Tuesday through Sat- 
urday and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. 
Sunday. Closed national holi- 
days. Museum shop. 

The collection consists of 
some 1,100 outstanding rugs 
and 14,000 textiles from 
around the world. It is espe- 
cially strong in Islamic design, 
and includes important col- 
lections from various regions 
of Central and South Amer- 
ica. Exhibits are changed 
throughout the year. 

© The U.S. National Arbore- 
tum, 3501 New York Avenue, 
NE. Open 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Monday through Friday and 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday 
and Sunday. The National 
Bonsai Collection is open 
10 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. daily. 
Closed December 25. 

This is one of Washing- 
ton's lesser known treasures. 



116 



Washington Cathedral 



Azaleas, ferns, camellias, 
magnolias, rhododendrons, 
and lilies grow in organized 
profusion. The Arboretum 
also has a dwarf conifer col- 
lection, hollies, boxwood, and 
the National Herb Garden. 
The National Bonsai Collec- 
tion was a bicentennial gift 
from Japan. Several trees and 
shrubs were presented by So- 
viet Premier Nikita Khrush- 
chev in 1960. The Arboretum 
also has a specimen of Fran- 
klinia altamaha, a tree named 
for Benjamin Franklin and 
today believed to be extinct 
in the wild. For anyone inter- 
ested in trees, shrubs, or 
woody plants, the Arboretum 
is a must. 




Woodrow Wilson House, the library 





3^ Washington Cathedral, Mas- 
sachusetts and Wisconsin 
Avenues, NW. Open 10 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m. daily. The Chapel 
of the Good Shepherd, which 
can be entered from the north 
side, is always open. Services 
at 8, 9, 10 (from September 
through June), and 1 1 a.m. 
and 4 p.m. on Sunday; 7:30 
a.m., noon, and 4 p.m. Mon- 
day through Saturday. Tours 
are given 10 a.m. to 3:15 p.m. 
Monday through Saturday; 
12:15 to 2:45 p.m. Sunday. 

This cathedral of the Epis- 
copal Diocese of Washington 
is modeled on the great 
Gothic structures of the 14th 
century and is the sixth larg- 
est cathedral in the world. 
Work began in 1907 and 
continues on the twin towers. 
The quality of workmanship 
— stone and wood carving, 
stained glass, needlepoint, 
and metal work — is unsur- 
passed in this country. 



©The Washington Post, 1 150 

15th Street, NW. Tours are 
limited to those 1 1 years and 
older, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. on the 
hour Monday and Thursdays 
only; reservations required. 

One of the most widely cir- 
culated and influential news- 
papers in the country, 'The 
Post" offers a 55-minute tour 
of its main newsroom, layout 
and composing floor, and 
printing presses. Desk-top 
computers have taken over 
the job once performed by 
standard typewriters and lino- 
type machines. The techni- 
cal aspects of editing by 
word-processing are empha- 
sized along with information 
about modern color printing. 
'The Post" is a morning pa- 
per, so the presses don't actu- 
ally roll until night, but the 
mood is electric as the news 
of the day is written, edited, 
and fitted onto the printed 
page. 



©Woodrow Wilson House, 

2340 S Street, NW. Open 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday 
through Sunday. Closed Jan- 
uary 1 and December 25. 
Museum shop. Fee. 

When President Woodrow 
Wilson left the White House 
on the day of Warren G. 
Harding's inauguration in 
1921 , he moved into this brick 
townhouse and lived here for 
the remaining three years of 
his life. Edith Boiling Wilson, 
who resided here until her 
death in 1961, bequeathed 
the property to the National 
Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion. 



117 



Nearby Maryland 



Clara Barton House (left) and 
Ft. Washington (below) 




Originally all the land that is within District of Co- 
lumbia was part of Maryland. In colonial times some 
of Maryland's leading citizens held vast tracts of land 
in this part of the colony. Georgetown was an impor- 
tant Maryland port. Today Maryland still plays a large 
role in the affairs of Washington. One of its two sub- 
urban counties has more people than the District of 
Columbia and the other has almost as many. The 
campus of the National Institutes of Health, Andrews 
Air Force Base, and the Goddard Space Flight Cen- 
ter assure a substantial federal presence in Montgom- 
ery and Prince Georges counties. These locales now 
are experiencing a transformation that is turning them 
from bedroom communities into urban centers rival- 
ing the old core of downtown Washington. Lest you 
should fear that nearby Maryland is turning into face- 
less steel, concrete, and glass canyons, here are some 
places to visi^ that will evoke other days and will show 
you another side of these vibrant communities. Don't 
let some of the incongruities fool you, the bedrock of 
an older Maryland is still there just waiting to be 
discovered. 






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QClara Barton National His- 
toric Site, 5801 Oxford Road, 
Glen Echo, Maryland. Open 
10 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. Closed 
January 1, Thanksgiving, and 
December 25. 

When Clara Barton left 
the scene of the Johnstown, 
Pennsylvania, flood in 1889, 
she dismantled one of the 
Red Cross warehouses of her 
fledgling organization and 
took the lumber to Washing- 
ton, D.C., with her. Two years 
later she reassembled the 
structure at Glen Echo, Mary- 
land, intending to use it as a 
headquarters building for the 
Red Cross. These plans did 
not work out immediately, 
and it was not until 1897 that 
she used the 38-room struc- 
ture as an office and a home 
after making some altera- 
tions. Barton lived here until 
her death in 1912. It became 
a National Park System site 
in 1974. 



118 



i_ 



Glen Echo Park, the carousel 





5 Fort Washington, at the end © 

of Fort Washington Road off 
Indian Head Highway, Mary- 
land. The park is open 7:30 
a.m. to dark daily. The fort is 
open 7:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Sep- 
tember through April; 7:30 
a.m. to 8 p.m. May through 
August. The museum is open 
daily during the summer and 
on weekends and holidays 
the rest of the year. Closed 
December 25. Fee. 

From the early days of 
Washington's existence, city 
leaders were concerned with 
preparing adequate defenses. 
Several forts have stood on 
this site; the current one 
dates from the end of the 
War of 1812. The fort never 
saw any action. Yet it re- 
mains an outstanding example 
of early-19th-century military 
architecture. From the ram- 
parts are panoramic views of 
the Potomac and of Mount 
Vernon across the river. 



Glen Echo Park, Glen Echo, 
Maryland. Open 10 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Monday through Friday 
and noon to 5 p.m. Saturday 
and Sunday. 

From May through Septem- 
ber a full schedule of folk fes- 
tivals, concerts, demonstra- 
tions, workshops, changing 
art exhibits, and evening ball- 
room and square dancing 
take place. Visit artists' work- 
shops or sign up yourself for 
classes ranging from ceram- 
ics, through dance and music, 
to painting and drama given 
in four sessions, year-round. 
Glen Echo is a community 
park dedicated to cultural 
activities similar to those fos- 
tering liberal and practical 
education by the early Chau- 
tauquans who established the 
park in 1891. Buildings with 
curious names and quaint fa- 
cades such as Candy Corner, 
Hall of Mirrors, and Spanish 
Ballroom recall when Glen 



Echo was an amusement park 
and one of the most popular 
places in Washington. The re- 
stored Dentzel Carousel with 
a Wurlitzer Military 165 band 
organ still operates and is a 
joy to see and hear. 

^ Great Falls Tavern, Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal Na- 
tional Historical Park, 
Maryland. The park is open 
dawn to dusk. Closed Decem- 
ber 25. The tavern is open 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. In sea- 
son, boat rides take visitors 
through several canal locks. 
This historic tavern about 
10 miles northwest of Wash- 
ington was one of the early 
stopovers on the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal. Today it is 
preserved by the National 
Park Service as a museum. 
The waterway which runs 
alongside the tavern is one of 
the best preserved of Ameri- 
ca's canals. 



119 



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chians was a bigger proble 
than we can begin ta4ipp«ec 
ate aided as we are by the 
internal combustion engine 



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fast-growing United States o 
the 1830s the mountains were 
a formidable barrier. In the 
late I8th century George 






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sought to cpnstruct a canal 



interior. Funds were short, 






ing could be completed. So, 
on July 4, 1828, President 



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_ the canaPs termmus at 
Georgetown on the Potom 



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otun 



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road in Baltimore. By 1850 



berland, Maryland, 184 miles 



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years earlier. Plans for con 
tinning the canal on to the 



ropped. 
tioned until 1924, carrymg 



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into ruin. The canal was 



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Service administration in 
1938, but little interest was 
shown in it until 1954, when a 



canal, and it became a na- 
tional monument in 1961 and 



1974. 



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National Capital Trolley Museum 





^Greenbelt Park, 6501 Green- 
belt Road, Greenbelt, Mary- 
land. Open dawn to dusk 
daily. 

This site tells the story of 
intensive farming, depletion 
of minerals, abandonment, 
extensive erosion, and recla- 
mation. Today this woodland 
area, managed by the Na- 
tional Park Service, offers 
overnight camping facilities 
for visitors to the capital city, 
hiking trails, and picnic areas. 

^ National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, God- 
dard Space Flight Center, 
Greenbelt, Maryland. Open 
10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Wednesday 
through Sunday. Closed Jan- 
uary 1 , ThanlvSgiving, and 
December 25. 

Here NASA keeps track of 
all the various manmade ob- 
jects in space and communi- 
cates with them. The weather 



122 



data that we have all become 
accustomed to seeing on the 
nightly news is also received 
here from weather satellites 
and made available to the 
domestic media. The tour of 
the facility shows how this is 
done and how other informa- 
tion is gleaned from the rov- 
ing satellites in the sky. 

© National Capital Trolley 
Museum, on Bonifant Road 
between Layhill Road and 
New Hampshire Avenue, 
Wheaton, Maryland. Open 
noon to 5 p.m. Saturdays, 
Sundays, Memorial Day, July 
4, and Labor Day and on 
Wednesday in July and 
August. Closed December 15 
through January 1. Fee for 
rides. 

The museum owns 14 
trolleys from the United 
States and Europe. Some 
operate through the nearby 
countryside. 



0Oxon Hill Farm, from Oxon 
Hill Road off Indian Head 
Highway, Oxon Hill, Mary- 
land. Open 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
daily. Closed December 25. 
Small farms like this were 
common throughout Mary- 
land and Virginia at the turn 
of the century. A family could 
largely meet its own needs 
and grow some crops for mar- 
ket. Most of the work is still 
done by hand at this National 
Park System area. Cows are 
milked by hand, fields are 
plowed by horse teams, sheep 
are sheared, and cider is 
pressed along with other 
farming activities. 

© Piscataway Park and Na- 
tional Colonial Farm, Bryan 
Point Road, Accokeek, Mary- 
land. The park is open dawn 
to dusk daily. The farm is 
open 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Tues- 
day through Sunday. Closed 
January 1, Thanksgiving, and 



National Colon:al Farm, Piscataway Park and Oxon Hill Farm (below) 




December 25. Fee. 

This restoration of a 
modest, 18th-century Tide- 
water plantation sits across 
the Potomac River from 
Mount Vernon within Pis- 
cataway Park. Costumed 
farm hands lead tours as they 
go about raising Red Devon 
cattle, Chincoteague ponies, 
turkeys, geese, and Guinea 
fowl; tending herb and vege- 
table gardens; and growing 
crops. The accent is on his- 
/ torical authenticity in this co- 
operative project between the 
Accokeek Foundation, Inc., 
and the National Park Ser- 
vice. Methods not known two 
centuries ago are not used 
here. This means that ma- 
chinery, chemical fertilizers, 
and pesticides are not used 
or to be found on the farm. A 
museum in the Main Barn 
displays tools that a family 
living on such a plantation 
would use for farm work. 



123 



Nearby Virginia 



Old Town Alexandria (left) and 
Arlington House (below) 





Crossing any of the bridges over the Potomac leads 
you to the Old Dominion, the Mother of Presidents, 
the home of the oldest elected legislature in North 
America. In other words, you have just entered Vir- 
ginia. Here settlement by English settlers began. Here 
much of the agitation that led to the separation from 
Great Britain got its start. Here the climactic battle of 
the Revolution was fought and won. Here people at- 
tempted to create a separate, sovereign nation from 
the United States. Much of the history of Virginia 
mirrors the history of the country, and this is evident 
in the sites that you can find as you wander through- 
out the area. Virginia is proud of its past and of its 
traditions. The people work to preserve that bygone 
time in the midst of the same rapid urbanization that 
can be found in the Maryland suburbs. Old Town 
Alexandria is about the same size as Georgetown with 
as many 18th and early 19th century homes and build- 
ings. Nearby is Mount Vernon where, across the span 
of two centuries, you can sense Washington the man. 
Throughout the region a vibrant, dynamic way of life 
is supplanting older, slower ways, but many vestiges 
of the Old Dominion cling on tenaciously. 



^Alexandria, Virginia. Begin 
your visit to Alexandria at 
the Ramsay House Visitors 
Center, 221 King Street. 
Open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. 
Closed January 1 , Thanksgiv- 
ing, and December 25. This 
is the visitor center for Alex- 
andria, where you can pick 
up brochures for shops, res- 
taurants, and hotels, a map 
with suggested walking tours, 
and an events calendar. Cos- 
tumed guides also conduct 
walking tours, but times vary 
seasonally. 

This was George Washing- 
ton's hometown. Today many 
of its streets seem little 
changed from the way they 
were 200 years ago, when 
Alexandria was one of Vir- 
ginia's largest and most pros- 
perous cities. More than 1 ,000 
18th- and 19th-century homes 
and structures still stand, a 
legacy of Alexandria's flour- 
ishing past. From its earliest 



124 




Arlington National Cemetery 




'^ -» % " 





days the city was a busy river 
port and tobacco center. The 
community was founded in 
July 1749 as Alexandria. Teen- 
ager George Washington had 
assisted surveyor John West, 
Jr., in laying out the town, 
and he became intimately in- 
volved in many aspects of its 
life. Sometimes, when it was 
too late to return to Mount 
Vernon, he would spend the 
night at the townhouse he 
built in 1769; a replica now 
stands on the site. Traces of 
the lives of other famous Vir- 
ginians are found throughout 
this charming Southern city. 
The street names themselves 
reflect the changing alle- 
giances of the citizenry: the 
earliest ones— King, Queen, 
Prince — reflecting royalist 
sentiments while later ones 
honor patriots of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 



^Arlington House, the Robert 
E. Lee Memorial, within 
Arlington National Cemetery. 
Open daily 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 
p.m. October through March; 
9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. April 
through September. 

George Washington Parke 
Custis began building this 
house in 1802 and finished it 
in 1817. The designer was 
George Hadfield, an English 
architect. At Custis" death it 
became the property of his 
daughter, Mary Custis Lee, 
the wife of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee. In those days the estate 
encompassed the hillside that 
is now covered with graves. 
The home, prominently over- 
looking the Potomac and 
Washington, D.C., has been 
restored to its Civil War ap- 
pearance by the National 
Park Service and is today a 
memorial to Lee, a man who 
gained the respect of Ameri- 
cans both North and South. 



^Arlington National Cemetery, 

at the west end of Memorial 
Bridge. Open 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
daily October through March; 
8 a.m. to 7 p.m. April through 
September. 

This military burial ground 
contains the graves of many 
notable Americans, Presi- 
dents John Kennedy and Wil- 
liam Howard Taft among 
them, and the tombs of an 
unknown soldier from World 
War I, World War II, the 
Korean Conflict, and the 
Vietnam War. 

^Athenaeum, 201 Prince 
Street, Alexandria, Virginia. 
Open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tues- 
day through Saturday and 1 
p.m. to 4 p.m. Sunday. Closed 
holidays and mid-July through 
Labor Day. 

The Northern Virginia Fine 
Arts Association maintains an 
art gallery here in an 1850 
Greek Revival style building. 



125 



Great Falls in late spring 




® Carlyle House, 121 North 
Fairfax Street, Alexandria, 
Virginia. Open 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m. Tuesday through Sat- 
urday and noon to 5 p.m. 
Sunday. Tours every half 
hour; last tour at 4:30 p.m. 
Closed January 1 , Thanksgiv- 
ing, and December 25. Fee; 
free admission on John Car- 
lyle's birthday, February 7. 

This spacious brick home 
was completed in 1753 by 
John Carlyle for his bride 
Sarah Fairfax. In 1755 Maj. 
Gen. Edward Braddock, com- 
mander-in-chief of all British 
forces in North America, met 
in this house with five Royal 
Governors to plan for the 
campaign against the French 
and their Indian allies. Tour 
guides paint a comprehen- 
sive picture of mid- 18th cen- 
tury life based on a cache 
of family letters discovered 
in Scotland. Period furnish- 
ings complete the scene. 



^Claude Moore Colonial Farm 

at Turkey Run, George 
Washington Memorial Park- 
way, McLean, Virginia. Open 
10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Wednes- 
day through Sunday, April 
through December. Fee. 

A working tenant farm on 
a few hilly acres just a few 
minutes from the busy park- 
way takes visitors back to 
Colonial times. Programs are 
announced during the plant- 
ing and harvesting seasons. 
There is always something for 
children to learn and to do. 

^Friendship Fire Engine Com- 
pany, 107 South Alfred Street, 
Alexandria, Virginia. Open 
irregularly; check with the 
Ramsay House Visitors 
Center. 

A volunteer fire company 
was organized here in 1774, 
and its first fire engine came 
from a member, George 
Washington. 



(J)George Washington Memo- 
rial Parkway, Virginia and 
Maryland. 

The parkway was carefully 
engineered in the 1930s to 
enhance views from the tide- 
water lowlands to high pali- 
sades further upstream, and 
to link together a variety of 
historic sites and recreation 
areas along the way. Notable 
are parking and picnicking 
overlooks at Fort Hunt and 
Fort Marcy, sailing marinas 
at Belle Haven and Dainger- 
field Island, a 17-mile-long 
pedestrian/bike path, and na- 
ture trails such as the one 
through the Dyke Marsh wild- 
life preserve. It provides a 
direct link between several 
sites associated with George 
Washington: Washington, 
D.C., whose site he chose; 
Alexandria, where he con- 
ducted his business; and 
Mount Vernon, where he 
made his home. 



126 




The Masonic Memorial 




(5 George Washington Masonic 
National Memorial, King and 
Callahan Streets, Alexan- 
dria, Virginia. Open 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. daily. Closed Janu- 
ary 1, Thanksgiving, and 
December 25. 

When the Alexandria 
Masonic Lx)dge was organized 
in 1788, George Washington 
was its first worshipful mas- 
ter. Today masons honor him 
with this memorial, which 
contains Washington memo- 
rabilia. Murals and stained 
glass windows depict events 
of Washington's life. You can 
take an elevator to an obser- 
vation area for a view of 
Alexandria and beyond to 
Washington. It is, indeed, one 
of the finest vantage points in 
the entire metropolitan area— 
especially on a clear day. 



: Great Falls Park, intersection 
of Old Dominion Drive and 
Old Georgetown Pike, Great 
Falls, Virginia. Open 9 a.m. 
to dark daily. Closed Decem- 
ber 25. Fee. 

Here the Potomac River 
cascades over a jagged rock 
wall and races through a nar- 
row gorge in its headlong rush 
to reach tidewater, just a few 
miles away. Hiking and horse- 
back riding trails wander 
through the woods and along 
the gorge. At times of flood- 
ing, the narrow gorge con- 
stricts the river, backing it up 
and almost obliterating the 
falls. In the hopes of foster- 
ing waterborne transportation 
and trade with the West, 
George Washington pro- 
moted the idea of building 
the Potowmack Canal around 
the falls. The project was 
never fully realized, but the 
remains of the canal and some 
locks can be seen today in this 
National Park System site. 



127 



Gunston Hall 



The Lyceum 





^Gunston Hall Plantation, 

Lorton, Virginia. Open 9:30 
a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. Closed 
December 25. Fee. 

Below Mount Vernon on 
the Potomac River, this beau- 
tiful 550-acre estate was the 
home of George Mason, who 
was the author of the Fairfax 
Resolves and the Virginia 
Declaration of Rights. The 
latter became the basis of the 
Bill of Rights, the first 10 
amendments to the U.S. Con- 
stitution. Mason, a major 
framer of the Constitution, 
refused to sign the document 
because it lacked the safe- 
guards later incorporated 
into the Bill of Rights and 
because it failed to abolish 
the slave trad?. Many archi- 
tectural historians consider 
the interior of Mason's brick 
mansion to be among the 
finest in the United States. 
The elaborate woodwork and 
detailing are representative 



of the work being done in 
London during the mid-18th 
century. The designer was 
William Buckland and the 
woodworker was William 
Sears. Reconstruction of the 
formal gardens surrounding 
the 18th-century boxwood 
allee was an early project of 
the Garden Club of Virginia. 

^Lee-Fendall House, 614 Oro- 
noco Street, Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia. Open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Tuesday through Saturday; 
noon to 4 p.m. Sunday. 
Closed January 1, Thanksgiv- 
ing, and December 25. Fee. 

Phillip Richard Fendall 
built this house in 1789. Fen- 
dall was related to the Lee 
family; in 118 years, 39 dif- 
ferent Lees lived in this house. 
Here "Light Horse Harry" 
wrote the funeral oration that 
described Washington as 
"first in war, first in peace, 
and first in the hearts of his 



countrymen." The last pri- 
vate owner of the house was 
labor leader John L. Lewis, 
who died in 1969. 

©The Lyceum, 201 South 
Washington Street, Alexan- 
dria, Virginia. Open 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. daily. Closed Janu- 
ary 1 , Thanksgiving, and De- 
cember 25. The gift shop 
specializes in items from Al- 
exandria and Virginia. 

Located in an imposing 
Greek revival building, which 
has also been used as the 
Alexandria Library Company, 
a Civil War hospital, and a 
private home. The Lyceum 
interprets life in Northern Vir- 
ginia during the past 300 
years. Changing exhibits, as 
well as concerts, lectures, and 
films, provide a vivid picture 
of the area and of the times. 



128 



LBJ Grove 



Manassas National Battlefield Park, summertime twilight 





) Lyndon Baines Johnson Me- 
morial Grove on the Potomac, 
in Lady Bird Johnson Park 

on Columbia Island in the Po- 
tomac River, accessible from 
the George Washington Me- 
morial Parkway. 

In honor of the 36th Presi- 
dent, who said his "deepest 
attitudes and beliefs were 
shaped by a closeness with 
the land," a 43-ton, rough- 
hewn block of granite quar- 
ried in Johnson's native Texas 
stands in a grove of white 
pines and dogwoods. The 
memorial is reached by sev- 
eral footpaths bordered by 
azaleas, rhododendrons, and 
the seasonal flowering of 
thousands of daffodils. The 
park is named for the former 
First Lady whose concern for 
the environment sparked 
beautification efforts nation- 
wide. Every spring the shores 
of the Potomac pay tribute 
to her vision. 



(^Manassas National Battlefield 

Park, Manassas, Virginia. 
Open daily. Closed Decem- 
ber 25. Fee. 

Northerners came to know 
the battles here as first and 
second Bull Run, while South- 
erners called them first and 
second Manassas. Whatever 
the name, both were South- 
ern victories. The first battle 
meant that the war would not 
be a short one, and the sec- 
ond opened the way for a 
Southern invasion of the 
North that led to the Battle 
of Antietam. Today the Na- 
tional Park Service provides 
a walking tour of the First 
Battle of Manassas and a driv- 
ing tour of the Second Battle. 
Exhibits in the visitor center 
explain the events that led to 
the battles, what went on 
during the fighting, and what 
happened afterward. 



^Mount Vernon. Southern 
terminus of the George 
Washington Memorial Park- 
way. Mount Vernon is open 
every day of the year: 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. November to 
March; 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
March to November. Fee. 

For more than half his life 
Mount Vernon belonged to 
George Washington. No 
matter where events took 
him, this was the place to 
which he returned. Under 
Washington's direction. 
Mount Vernon became one 
of Virginia's outstanding plan- 
tations. Today the mansion 
has been restored to look as 
nearly as possible as it did 
during Washington's lifetime. 
The tombs of George and 
Martha Washington and some 
other family members are 
also located on the grounds. 
Some of the trees near the 
house were planted by 
Washington. 



129 




The Mount Vernon we see 
today is due to the work of 
two people who never knew 
one another -George Wash- 
ington and Ann Pamela Cun- 
ningham. The first developed 
it, the second preserved it. 
Mount Vernon had befen fam- 
ily property almost a century 
when George Washington in- 
herited it in 1761. Until his 
death Washington lavished 
time -as much as he could 
vspare-and love on his home. 
Washington always main- 
i^ined^is interest in*^is es- 
tate, foUowed all developments 
closely no matter how far 



away he was or for how long 
he had been absent, and 
thought himself a fortunate 
man to have such an excellent 
property. "No estate in 
United America is more pleas- 
antly situated than this," he 
wrote to one correspondent. 
Under his watchful eye. 
Mount Vernon increased frolfi 
2,126 acre^ to more than 
8,000 on five independently 
managed farms. Washington 
never bought or sold any 
slaves after the Revolution and 
owned only those he inher** 
ited, that Martha brought to 
their marriage, and their de- 



scendants. On his death he 
freed his pejsonal servant, and 
his will provided that all the 
remaining slaves be freed on^^' 
his wife's death. Service build- 
ings and workshops were built 
over the years, and gardens 
and fields laid out all accord- .. 
ing to Washington's strict 
instruction. He liked to think [ 
of himself as an innovative and, 
skillful farmer, and he expert- ' 
mented with different crops. 
'Washington died in the last 
days of 1799 and his wife, 
-Martha, survived him not - 
quite threej^ears. Thereafter 
the property passed to other 



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family members who found 
the task of running the plan- 
tation increasingly onerous. 
Different family members 
tried to persuade either the 
Federal Government or the 
Commonwealth of Virginia to 
maintain th^ land in trust for 
the people of the United , 
States. Neither argument was 
successful. In 1853 Ann > 
Pamela Cunningham of South 
Carolina created the Mount 
Vernon Ladie^^ Association 
of the Union, which drummed 
up interest in pi-eserving the^ 
home. In 1858 the mansion," 
major outbuildings, and 200 



acres of Washington's land 
became the property of the 
Association. Since that time 
the Association has engaged 
in research, preservation, rou- 
tine maintenance, and any 
work needed to keep Mount 
Vernon open to the public. 



Boyhood Home of Robert E. Lee 



Apothecary Shop 




^ The Pentagon, intersection of 
1-395 and Va. 1 10, Arlington, 
Virginia. Tours 9:30 a.m. to 
3:30 p.m. Monday through 
Friday except 10:30 a.m. and 
1 and 3 p.m. Closed week- 
ends and holidays. 

This is the home of the De- 
partment of Defense. It is 
the largest office building in 
the world. 

© Prince William Forest Park, 

Triangle, Virginia. Open 
daily. Fee. 

The land here was acquired 
and reclaimed by the Civilian 
Conservation Corps as a dem- 
onstration project in the 
1930s. Today a pine and hard- 
wood forest shades a National 
Park System a'-ea that is laced 
with hiking trails; has camp- 
grounds for campers, groups, 
and trailers; and provides 
walks, talks, and exhibits. 



®The Boyhood Home of 
Robert E. Lee, 607 Oronoco 
Street, Alexandria, Virginia. 
Open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Mon- 
day through Saturday; noon 
to 4 p.m. Sunday. Closed 
December 15 through Febru- 
ary 1. Fee. 

Henry "Light Horse Harry" 
Lee and his wife — Ann Hill 
Carter Lee — moved into this 
house with their five children, 
including 5-year-old Robert 
E. Lee. The house, which 
was built in 1795, has been 
restored and furnished with 
rare antiques, and memora- 
bilia of the Lee family. 

® Stabler Leadbeater Apothe- 
cary Shop, 105 South Fairfax 
Street, Alexandria, Virginia. 
Open 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
Monday through Saturday. 
Because of major renovations, 
check with Ramsay House 
Visitors Center for times. 
This shop first opened for 




business in 1792 and oper- 
ated until 1933. Today it is a 
museum that houses a re- 
markable collection of early 
medical wares. Robert E. Lee 
was in this store when Lt. 
J.E.B. Stuart delivered a mes- 
sage telling Lee to go to Harp- 
ers Ferry to deal with John 
Brown's raid in 1859. 

©Theodore Roosevelt Island, 

in the Potomac River, acces- 
sible from the northbound 
lanes of the George Washing- 
ton Memorial Parkway on a 
footbridge at the parking lot. 
Open 8 a.m. to dark daily. 

This island commemorates 
Theodore Roosevelt's love of 
nature and his enduring com- 
mitment to conservation. 
Four granite tablets, near a 
statue of Roosevelt, contain 
selections from his writings. 
Trails lead through woods and 
swamps in this refuge from 
the nearby city. 



L32 



U.S. MaririO Corps War Memorial, dawn 




Theodore Roosevelt Island 




©U.S. Marine Corps War Me- 
morial and the Netherlands 

Carillon, Virginia. Marine 
sunset review parade June 
through August 7 p.m. to 8:30 
p.m. Tuesdays. Carillon con- 
certs April through June and 
September 2 to 4 p.m. on 
Saturdays; during July and 
August 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. on 
Saturdays. 

The popular sculpture by 
Felix W. de Weldon, based 
on a prize news photo by Joe 
Rosenthal, captures the ag- 
ony of World War II in a 
tribute to all the Marine 
Corps engagements since 
1775. Suspended nearby in 
an open tower is a 49-bell 
carillon dedicated to friend- 
ship from the Dutch people 
for American aid received 
during and after World 
War II. 



133 



The gristmill'sworks 



Wolf Trap Farm Park, the Filene Center 





©Washington's Grist Mill His- 
torical State Park, Mount 
Vernon, Virginia. Open daily 
Memorial Day to Labor Day, 
February 22, and on the com- 
memoration of Washington's 
birthday. 

In 1770 George Washing- 
ton constructed a mill on or 
near this site to replace one 
that had fallen into disrepair. 
Washington's mill ground two 
different grades of flour: 
"merchant trade" and "coun- 
try trade." Washington oper- 
ated the mill throughout his 
life and left it to his nephew, 
Lawrence Lewis, the owner 
of nearby Woodlawn. By 1850 
the mill had fallen into ruins 
and many of the stones had 
been used for ether build- 
ings. In 1932, the bicenten- 
nial of Washington's birth, 
the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia reconstructed the mill. 



©Wolf Trap Farm Park for the 
Performing Arts, 1551 Trap 
Road, Vienna, Virginia. 
Open early June through early 
September. Other programs, 
smaller in scope, go on year 
round. Pre-performance 
picnics on the lawns are 
encouraged. 

Situated only 25 minutes 
west of the White House, 
Wolf Trap was the first 
National Park System unit 
dedicated to the performing 
arts. Programs in the Filene 
Center are designed to suit a 
variety of interests. The best 
in opera, dance, symphony, 
jazz, musical theater, and 
popular music is presented 
here. The Wolf Trap Com- 
pany provides young artists 
with an opportunity to work 
with professionals. The thea- 
ter seats 3,500 people under 
cover and 3,000 more on the 



lawn. 



©Woodlawn Plantation and 
Frank Lloyd Wright's Pope- 
Leighey House, Mount Ver- 
non, Virginia. Woodlawn is 
open 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
daily. Closed January 1 , 
Thanksgiving, and December 
25. Check with the staff for 
information on seeing the 
Pope-Leighey House. Fee. 

When Washington's foster 
daughter, Eleanor Parke 
Custis, married his nephew, 
Maj. Lawrence Lewis, Wash- 
ington gave them a large tract 
of his Mount Vernon estate 
on which to build a home and 
here they built Woodlawn. 
The architect is believed to 
have been Dr. William 
Thornton, who designed the 
Capitol. The Pope-Leighey 
House, also on the property, 
is a Frank Lloyd Wright 
Usonian house, built in 1940. 
Both structures are the prop- 
erty of the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation. 



134 



Woodlawn Plariiation 




Pope— Leighey House 





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Join the Celebration 



"The population of Washington is more 
Hke that of Paris or Vienna than of the 
usual American city," journalist Frank 
Carpenter wrote near the end of the 
last century. 'The people are more inter- 
ested in amusement than in work, and 
a celebration of any kind is sure of a 
large attendance." 

Alas, in the years since, the work has 
grown more serious in Washington— 
and the workers more serious with 
it— but the city's love of celebration sur- 
vives unchecked. 

Like few other capitals in the world, 
Washington was laid out for ceremony, 
appropriately by a Parisiar borrowing 
heavily from his native city. Some of 
Pierre Charles L'Enfant's plan never saw 
the light of day: Constitution Avenue, 
for example, is no longer a canal. Still, 
LEnfant imposed a logic of gaiety and 
grandeur that has been with Washing- 
ton ever since. 

Nowhere is that more obvious than 
in the wonderfully conceived triangle 
joining the Capitol, White House, and 
Washington Monument, the nearest 
thing this country has to a national party 
park. In June and early July, the Smith- 
sonian museums that dot the Mall and 
the National Park Service play host to 
the American Folklife Festival. On July 
4th the Nation's birthday is celebrated 



Pages 1 36-1 37: The President's Own" United 
States Marine Band 



with a spectacular fireworks display that 
attracts hundreds of thousands of 
spectators. 

That same month, on the Ellipse 
south of the White House, the twilight 
military tatoos begin. On the same site 
in December, the President tunis on the 
lights of the National Christmas Tree, 
and weeks of nightly choral perform- 
ances begin. A few weeks later, the 
restored Post Office Building on Penn- 
sylvania Avenue becomes the setting 
for a giddy New Year's Eve Party. 

In spring, the ornamental cherry trees 
bloom along the Tidal Basin south of 
the Mall, and another festival begins. 
Remarkably, the trees almost always 
bloom right on cue. 

These are Washington's parties — 
that's the fun of living here— but they 
also are the Nation's parties because 
Washington is the Nation's city. 

The city, however, does enjoy an 
occasional provincial celebration. Some 
times, on Sunday evenings in the fall 
and early winter, tourists are startled 
by impromptu parades of motorists 
honking horns and raising "V" for vic- 
tory signs out their car windows. A 
diplomatic or military triumph? No, 
it's just another professional football 
victory for the locally beloved Washing- 
ton Redskins. 



138 




LEnfant's great radial avenues are 
host to another enduring part of Wash- 
ington's ceremonial life: the motorcade. 
Security precautions have made the 
business of transporting heads of state 
more icily remote than in the days when 
Abraham Lincoln and Walt Whitman 
could nod a greeting to each other. 
Today, you need penetrating vision to 
see the grand personage in the center 
limousine behind thick, tinted glass. But 
even the natives stop and stare, some- 
times from the attendant traffic jams. 

It's important to note that ceremony 
works its way into the whole fabric of 
hfe in Washington. The sombre, stately 
changing of the guard at Arlington 
Cemetery's Tomb of the Unknown Sol- 
dier, the ritualized greeting of foreign 
dignitaries at the White House, the 
parades and balls that mark the qua- 
drennial inaugural ceremonies, the fre- 
quent wreath layings— at the Lincoln 
Memorial on Abraham Lincoln's birth- 
day, at the Washington Monument on 
George Washington's birthday— they all 
date back to an elegant plan that built 
ceremony into the very soul of the 
place. 




— Howard Means ^ Washington-based 
newspaper columnist and writer 



Think Thematically 



When many people come to Washing- 
ton they have a long list of specific sites 
they want to see, and they head right 
out to see them. After trudging around 
the city all day, they return to their 
motel or hotel with weary feet and dizzy 
heads. 

There's no need to do that. Relax a 
bit while you are here. Have a picnic 
on the Mall or along the Potomac. Take 
a bike ride on the trail that runs along 
the George Washington Memorial Park- 
way north of Mount Vernon. Go to an 
armed services band concert or to a 
show at one of the area's many profes- 
sional and amateur theaters. Take a lei- 
surely walk through or by the city's 
innumerable floral gardens. Savor the 
District's international ambience at one 
of the many new ethnic restaurants. 



Instead of looking at the city as an 
endless string of individual sites, think 
of it thematically. Consider making up 
your own day-long tour of the city's stat- 
ues and fountains, or taking an archi- 
tecturally oriented tour in the blocks 
around the White House. You might be 
surprised— and delighted— by what you 
discover when the statuary becomes 
more than a backdrop and when the 
buildings become more than deposito- 
ries of historic objects. 

Some times the not-so-well-known 
places are the ones that you remember 
best when you regale your friends and 
neighbors with tales about your trip. 
There are all sorts of small, delightful 
museums and historic sites for you to 
discover and enjoy. The extra effort to 
ferret out these places is usually well 



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worth it. Be adventurous. Let serendip- 
ity be your guide. 

And if you have children in tow on 
your pilgrimage to the Nation's Capital, 
keep their interests — and attention 
spans— in mind. As an additional chal- 
lenge, they might follow Henry Fairlie's 
advice in Part 1 and read the inscrip- 
tions on the government buildings. 

To help you plan your Washington 
visit, the following pages present a the- 
matic sampler of the metropolitan area 
along with suggestions for side trips you 
might take to National Park System sites 
and other places in the neighboring 
states of Virginia, Maryland, West Vir- 
ginia, and Pennsylvania. Enjoy your 
travels. 

— The National Park Service 



U.S. Navy Band on the Mall 




iMzti 



Floral Vistas 



While in Washington, take a moment 
to stop and smell the roses . . . and the 
daffodils and the tulips and the cherry 
blossoms and the azaleas and the dog- 
wood and .... In almost any month, 
somewhere in the city, there is a bloom- 
ing spectacle of flowers guaranteed to 
elicit a chorus of "oohs" and "ahs." 

The most celebrated of the city's flo- 
ral displays are the delicate white and 
pink blossoms of the Japanese cherry 
trees that decorate the Tidal Basin, the 
Washington Monument grounds, and 
adjacent downtown parks in spring. But 
spring is also the season of daffodils, 
tulips, and other early bloomers. Daf- 
fodils put on some of their gaudiest 
shows around the Tida^ Basin, in nearby 
Lady Bird Johnsop Park, and in the 
woodland setting of Rock Creek Park, 
where more than a million explode in 
sunbursts of yellow. Well over 100,000 
tulips planted by the National Park Ser- 
vice each year enliven Washington's ave- 
nues, urban parks, squares, monuments. 



and fountains. One particularly ambi- 
tious display is the Tulip Library (shown 
here) beside the Tidal Basin, where as 
many as 90 varieties bloom red, white, 
blue, yellow, purple, and just about any 
other color imaginable. A more tradi- 
tional combination of red and yellow 
tulips brightens the White House lawn; 
up-close peeks at the First Family's gar- 
dens, including the famed Rose Garden, 
are provided on tours on two days each 
April. Other gardens at Rawlins Park, 
Old Stone House, Pershing Park, and 




Above: Smithsoniao#Enid A. Haupt Garden 
Background: Tulip Library nearTidai Basin 







Meridian Hill Park are some of the city's 
best kept and most enchanting secrets. 
Spring's flowers fade quickly, but gar- 
deners replace them with begonias, 
marigolds, impatiens, and other summer 
annuals that bloom into fall. By late- 
spring, or early-summer, it is the season 
of azaleas, when all of Washington 
seems to be ablaze in brilliant pinks, 
reds, and lavenders. Nowhere are the 
azaleas more dazzling than at the 
National Arboretum, where 70,000 of 
them burst into bloom among dog- 




woods, magnolias, and other flowering 
shrubs and trees. Another place where 
flowers bloom almost all year is the U.S. 
Botanic Garden, which boasts a collec- 
tion of exotic orchids, as well as other 
unusual tropical and desert plants. Flow- 
ers of quite a different type highlight 
Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens, where 
summer-blooming water lilies and 
lotuses abound. 

And how do the gardens of the rich 
and famous grow? Quite nicely, as dem- 
onstrated by the formal European-style 
gardens of Dumbarton Oaks. Intermixed 
with fountains, pools, and sculpted 
hedges are terraces of roses, forsythias, 
and cherry trees. Another formal delight 
is the Smithsonian's Enid A. Haupt Gar- 
den (inset). 

For those who prefer flowers wild, 
there are forested trails through Rock 
Creek Park and the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal National Historical Park. 

— Carolyn de Raismes, NFS writei^editor 




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Water, Bronze, and Stone 



The statues and fountains of Washing- 
ton document the District's role not just 
as a center of the Federal Government 
but as a repository for monuments to 
all aspects of the collective national 
memory. 

The city's parks are full of artifacts 
made by one generation to celebrate 
its own and earlier times and to make 
sure that later generations will remem- 
ber. These artifacts, cast in bronze or 
carved in stone, are permanent emblems 
of professional, social, or tribal identi- 
ties; of deeds performed; of fears 
averted; of victories; and of survivals 
that some people could not bear to have 
their children forget. 

The events and heroes commemo- 
rated have roots in every state of the 
Union. While the more important mon- 
uments were approved by Congress, few 
were built with appropriated funds. 

The public subscription for the Wash- 
ington Monument stretched out over 
several decades. On the other hand it 




took little more than a year to commit 
$7 million for the capital's most visited 
and most intensely revered monument, 
the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The 
funds were raised by the Vietnam vet- 
erans themselves. 

Some of the city's statues are frankly 
polemic: Temperance. Some are 
chauvinistic: Shevchenko. Some are 
fraternal: Arlington Jaycees. Some are 
controversial: Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, 
the homeopathy advocate. Some are 
poignant: Gallaudet, the creator of sign 
language for the deaf. Some are brood- 
ing: Augustus Saint-Gaudens' Adams 
Monument, also known as Grief (below 
left). Some are plain bathetic like the 
Boy Scout Memorial, a boy with a knot- 
ted neck scarf flanked by two unclad 
parents. "If granite could blush," one 
critic remarked, "the scout would turn 
crimson." 

Perhaps the city's most unofficial- 
looking piece of outdoor sculpture was 
commissioned by the American Medi- 



From left: Grief, Bartholdi Fountain, Navy-Marine Memorial 

144 




cal Association. It is the abstract stabile 
Sky Landscape, the only public work 
in the capital by Louise Nevelson, the 
grand dame of American sculpture. 
There appears to be emerging a trend 
for sculpture designed to be ''read" 
by motorists. Examples 
are J. Seward 
Johnson, Jr.'s The 
'Awakening, an aluminum giant 
whose right knee, right arm, left hand, 
and bearded face are trying to squirm 
their way out of the earth at the tip of 
Hains Point; and the lyrical Navy- 
Marine Memorial with its seven gulls 
hovering over a breaking wave of art 
nouveau aluminum (below) along 
George Washington Memorial 
Parkway opposite the 




Pentagon. 

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Water, Bronze, and Stone 



Some motorists— and ambitious 
pedestrians— come across the largest 
and most successful of the city's numer- 
ous statues to generals, the Grant 
Memorial at the east end of the Mall. 
Though overshadowed by the Capitol, 
the 252-foot-long statuary grouping is 
a masterpiece in itself. Ulysses S. Grant 
sits serenely on horseback flanked by 
highly charged battle scenes of artillery 
and cavalry (below). 

Some of the newest memorials are 
low and flat, best seen from a heli- 
copter: Memorial to 56 Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence in Consti- 
tution Gardens, and Freedom Plaza, a 
giant flat map of Washington with patri- 
otic quotations at Pennsylvania Avenue 
at 14th Street, NW. 

All these inert masses are relieved by 
the daily changing sunlight and shad- 
ows, by seasonal bloomings, or some- 
times by splashing water. The parks and 
avenues abound in fountains, many of 
them virtuoso compositions of sprays 



Above right; Meridian Hill Park 
Background: Grant Memorial 



of water playing over polished metal and 
granite. The cast-iron Bartholdi Foun- 
tain (page 144), by the Statue of Liberty 
sculptor, was the city's first to incorpo- 
rate sound and light. 

How many people realize when they 
see the letters "D.C." on a license plate 
who the place was named for? The 
rationale is fully documented in the fore- 
court of Union Station with the Chris- 
topher Columbus Memorial Fountain, 
where children sneak forbidden dips all 
summer in the shadow of Columbus' 
ship. 

At the steps of the Library of Con- 
gress sculptor Roland Hinton Perry 
carved an ornate Fountain of the Court 
of Neptune, a colossal old man of the 
sea with tritons and mermaids in a 
frenzy of harnessed energy. At the 
Washington Hebrew Congregation, a 
fountain rises from an abstract seven- 
branched menorah of stainless steel in 
the form of the Hebrew letter Yod, 
which symbolijs|s the name of God. Not 




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far away, in the Garth Fountain at Wash- 
ington Cathedral, is an abstract lotus 
by George Tsutakawa. Pumps hidden 
within its stacked leafy forms make for 
a lively integration of falling water and 
shining bronze. A cascade of 13 grad- 
uated, curved fountains ending in a pool 
and promenade accentuates the delight- 
ful formal garden aspect of Meridian 
Hill Park (left) on 16th Street NW. 

And perhaps the city's most urbane 
fountain is Malabar by Elyn Zimmer- 
man at the National Geographic: five 
spit-and-polished reddish boulders flank- 
ing a long reflecting pool. 

Excluding the Zero Milestone, only 
two monuments relate exclusively to the 
District of Columbia itself: the D.C. 
World War Memorial and the District 
Settlers. This tells you something about 
the capital: it belongs to the Nation. 

—EJ. Applewhite^ essayist and author 




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The Performing Arts 



There's no business like show business, 
and there's an awful lot of it in Wash- 
ington. 

The center for the performing arts 
is, conveniently, the John F. Kennedy 
Center for the Performing Arts. In four 
theaters— sometimes five — under that 
roof, you can see ballet and opera from 
Washington and elsewhere, foreign and 
domestic, the National Symphony and 
visiting orchestras, a wide variety of 
concert artists, musicals, and straight 
dramas and comedies pre-Broadway, 
post-Broadway, and originating at the 
Ken Cen. You want it, they've got it— at 
one time or another. 

The other Broadway-conscious house 
in town is the city's oldest continously 
operating. The National Theater, which 
is now featuring almost exclusively pre- 
New York tryouts and national touring 
companies of New York hits. 

The city's home-grown leader of the 
country's regional theater movement is 
Arena Stage, which uses both the in-the- 



round house for which the theater is 
named and a lovely small proscenium 
arch house, the Kreeger, as well as a 
subterranean cabaret. The Old Vat, 
where experimental works-in-progress 
often appear. Arena's scenic effects are 
often dazzling, the acting on a high 
level, the choice of plays always inter- 
esting, often inspired. 

The other institutional house in town 
is the Folger Theater on Capitol Hill, 
where a replica of Shakespeare's Globe 
Theater is used for Shakespearean pro- 
ductions and much else besides. 

Ford's Theatre, downtown, was closed 
after Abraham Lincoln's assassination, 
but in recent years it has been brought 
back to its show business purposes. It 
specializes in one-man shows based on 
the letters and journals of literary and 
historical figures and also presents tab- 
loid musicals and small-cast plays. 

The hottest of the younger companies 
in town for the last several years has 
been the Studio Theatre, with one 





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From left: National Symphony Orchestra, FolgerShakespeare Library production, Royal Danish Ballet 

148 



knockout production after another. The 
New Playwrights is just what it says, with 
the pluses and minuses of the name. 

Far-out theater— outside the city that 
is— is good, too. Wolf Trap, to the west 
in Virginia, is enjoyable for summertime 
musicals, concerts, and specials, com- 
bined with a picnic on the grass. To the 
north, and very good indeed, is Olney, 
Maryland's State Summer Theater. 
Concerts take place at the 
Library of Congress, the 
Phillips Collection, the 
Corcoran Gallery, and 
especially 

at the 
National 
Gallery 



of Art, which maintains its own cham- 
ber orchestra. Church and State alike 
offer first-class free musical programs: 
check the Washington Cathedral, 
the Shrine of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, and the National Presbyterian 
Church; the Armed Services bands— all 
of them— keep on the move around 
town, but they're well worth finding and 
offer a lot more than oom-pa-pa, 
although their oom-pa-pa is the best. 
For other musical tastes, there are a 
few jazz and bluegrass clubs around 
Washington. 

And the great thing about them all 
is that, after a hard day of museums and 
monuments, you take in the performing 
arts sitting down. 



— Frank Getlein^ Washington 
theater, movie, and restaurant 
critic 




Small and Multifarious Museums 



Washington's museums, like American 
culture, are a healthy blend of pomp 
and pop, of the conventional and the 
eccentric. On the Mall, the familiar, dig- 
nified repositories of the Nation's heri- 
tage stand at attention. But elsewhere 
in the city are some well-kept secrets. 

Some of these museums remind us 
that we are a nation of nations. The 
B'nai B'rith Klutznick Museum wraps 
history, archeology, art, and religion into 
an intriguing package appealing to both 
the eye and the mind. The permanent 
collection highlights Jewish life and fes- 
tivals with ceremonial, utilitarian, and 
art objects from 20 centuries. And the 
Lillian and Albert Small Jewish Mu- 
seum tells the story of Washington's 
Jewish community. 

Howard University, on the edge of 
the historic black residential area of 
LeDroit Park , has a world-renowned col- 
lection that preserves black history and 
cultural heritage. The materials in the 
Moorland-Spingarn Research Center 



come to life through permanent and 
temporary exhibitions at the Howard 
University Museum. Across the Quad- 
rangle, Howard's Gallery of Art has 
changing exhibitions and its own Afri- 
can art collection (below center). 

Other museums offer a combination 
of ambience and history. The manicured 
summer flower beds that ornament 
Anderson House, the headquarters of 
the Society of the Cincinnati, are rea- 
son enough for a visit beyond the exhib- 
its of Revolutionary War memorabilia. 

Although the city's approach to the 
visual arts can be considered staid, the 
Washington Project for the Arts is a 
leading showcase for contem- 
porary art in a variety of 
media. Nearby, in \ 

WPA's 7th Street 
neighborhood, 
are a number 
of contem- 
porary arts and 
crafts galler- 




. (orn left' National Museum of Women m the Arts, Howard University Gallery of Art. National Building Museum 

150 



ies. And if you like rugs, blankets, and 
other things woven or knitted, go to the 
Textile Museum. Another esthetic 
delight is Dumbarton Oaks, which is 
devoted to an unusual combination of 
Byzantine and pre-Columbian arts. 

A lesser-known site is the Building 
Museum (below right), and you should 
see it for the building itself, if nothing 
else. Eight huge Corinthian columns 
dominate this, the largest room in the 
city. Other lesser-knowns include such 
specialized governmental collections as 
the Armed Forces Medical Museum, 
the Navy Museum, and the U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior Museum— all of 

which are well worth seeing. 
And Washington's 
array of mu- 



seums keeps 

expanding. 

More than 

190 women 

artists from 

the Re- 




naissance to the present are represented 
at the National Museum of Women in 
the Arts. If you haven't heard of Lavinia 
Fontana, you're not alone, but this new 
museum celebrates the work of women 
like Fontana— a respected artist in Bolo- 
gna in the 1500s— as well as the better 
known Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, 
and Helen Frankenthaler. A 1907 
Masonic temple designed by Waddy 
Wood houses the museum (below left). 

The National Holocaust Memorial 
Museum, opening in the early 1990s, 
commemorates the six million Jews mur- 
dered during the Holocaust and the mil- 
lions of other victims of Nazism. 

With Washington's bounty of cultural 
attractions, the easy decision is to head 
for the Mall. Occasionally the more 
pleasurable option is to visit some of 
the city's other treasures. 

—Ellen Cochran Hir^^ freelance writer-editor 
and former editor of "Museum News" 




151 



Fun for Kids 



Some parts of the Nation's Capital are 
more enjoyable than others— at least 
from a child's perspective. Parents usu- 
ally want their children to see the White 
House, the Capitol, and the Smithsonian 
museums before heading home, but 
some not-quite-so-obvious places and 
events might impress them as much. 

Take the kids to the Capital Children's 
Museum, where they can stretch their 
minds with computers and innovative 
exhibits, pretend they are firefighters, 
and otherwise have a good time. The 
secret of this place is activity, and the 
kids welcome it after hours of trooping 
around museums looking at artifacts. 

Whether or not you have a zoo in 
your hometown, spend a morning or 
afternoon at the National Zoo. The 
Smithsonian has gone to great pains to 
make the animals' habitats more natu- 
ral and less cage-like. The panda bears 
are perhaps the major attraction — 
except to the boy or girl who prefers 
giraffes or elephants or gorillas. 



If your children know iiiile about 
rural farm life, take a short drive into 
nearby Maryland to Oxon Hill Farm or 
to the National Colonial Farm to see 
some farm animals up close. Oxon Hill 
takes you back to the early 1900s, and 
Colonial portrays a mid- 18th century 
middle-class tobacco farm. In McLean, 
Virginia, tlTb Claude Moore Colonial 
Farm provides a glimpse of life on a 
modest family homestead. 

You can take a ride into other days- 
gone-by at the National Capital Trolley 
Museum and at the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal. At the museum, not only 




^^^- 




will you see streetcars from grandma 
and grandpa's day, but you can take a 
20-minute trolley ride. In every season 
but winter you can ride mule-drawn 
canal boats in restored sections of the 
C&O Canal at Georgetown and at 
Great Falls, Maryland, while interpret- 
ers tell canal stories and sing songs. 

Or you can take a trip back to the 
Victorian era at the Washington Dolls' 
House and Toy Museum in Chevy 
Chase, D.C., which is full of— what else? 
— dollhouses, dolls, and toys. 

If your kids want a diversion while 
you're on the Mall, let them crawl over 
the dinosaur and ride the carousel. 
Then take them to the Insect Zoo in 
the Museum of Natural History to see, 
among other things, bees and tarantu- 
las. They might even get to hold a Mad- 
agascar hissing cockroach. 

And, when you are worn out but the 
kids are still full of energy, suggest they 
throw a frisbee or fly a kite on the 
Washington Monument grounds, or let 



them work their legs on a Tidal Basin 
paddleboat. While they unwind, you 
can, too, and soon you will be ready 
for another round of sightseeing in the 
mandatory marble corridors. 



— Bruce Hopkins, 
NPS writer-editor 




\ 



From left: Young firefighter at Capital Children's Museum, clown, watching a patriotic parade 






153 



International Washington 



In the last 30 years or so, Washington 
has changed from a sleepy Southern 
town to a bustling, growing, cosmopol- 
itan city of fashionable shops and side- 
walk cafes— a Paris on the Potomac. 

International artists perform in the 
city's concert halls and theaters; the 
museums, in addition to their rich per- 
manent collections, exhibit works from 
all over the world in traveling shows 
attracting thousands of visitors; the 
Smithsonian Institution has expanded 
its collection with the spectacular under- 
ground Sackler Gallery of Near Eastern 
and Asian Art and the Museum of Afri- 
can Art; and the intellectual life of the 
universities is flourishing. 

The most casual observer can't miss 
one sign of this surge in internation- 
alism: the growth of the restaurant com- 



munity in which more than 50 nation- 
alities are now represented. An earlier 
handful of bland French, Italian, and 
Chinese restaurants has been replaced 
by an astonishing variety of regional eat- 
eries from Provence, Northern Italy, and 
Szechuan Province that rival the best 
of their own countries. Other restaurants 
reflect every taste and cuisine of the 
world. One can dine on food from coun- 
tries as far flung as Afghanistan, Viet- 
nam, Ethiopia, Korea, El Salvador, and 
Thailand— with several serving the fiery 
food of the latter. 

The clientele for these restaurants is 
drawn from many sources: locals, dip- 
lomats, tourists, and expatriates. Inter- 
national organizations such as the World 
Bank, the International Monetary Fund, 
and the Organization of American 



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States bring large numbers of employees 
and their families from all over the 
world. 

The diplomatic community with all 
its comings and goings also makes up 
a significant part of the international 
community here. Massachusetts Avenue 
NW. , between Dupont Circle and Wis- 
consin Avenue, passes as "embassy row" 
with clusters of embassies housed in 
their own elegant buildings like the Brit- 
ish and Brazilian, or in grand old 19th- 
centry mansions converted to serve the 
20th like the Indonesian and Turkish 
missions. The blue-and-white tiled 
Islamic Center with its mosque and 
exotic minarets is just down the street 
from the former Iranian mission and 
the South African embassy, both of 
which have been centers of attention 



as world events continue to put their 
mark on the city. You will find other 
embassies located in various parts of 
the city, such as the modern structures 
housing French diplomats, near George- 
town University (below) , and our Cana- 
dian neighbors, across from the National 
Gallery. 

Children from embassy families often 
attend one of several international 
schools scattered around the city, but 
some countries run their own. 

One of the most obvious signs of dip- 
lomatic presence can be spotted by any 
passer-by: the red, white, and blue reg- 
istration plates on some cars marked 
with a D and a secret code (for secu- 
rity reasons) identifying the country and 
diplomatic status of the owner. 

Continued on next page 




Background French Embassy 



155 



International Washington 



Although Washington, D.C., in the 
past has never been a haven for large 
numbers of immigrants, in the past 
decade the city has found itself the ben- 
eficiary of an influx of Hispanics from 
Central America and the Caribbean, 
of Vietnamese and other Southeast 
Asians, and to a lesser degree of refu- 
gees from the Middle East. These new 
residents have brought with them the 
customs, languages, and food of their 
homelands. 

Thousands, for instance, take to the 
streets to celebrate Hispanic culture 
every July in the Adams-Morgan street 



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festival with food, song, and dance. 
Every Chinese New Year, an exotic 
dragon (below) winds its way in a parade 
through Washington's Chinatown with 
the sound of firecrackers chasing away 
the evil spirits. The streets of Clarendon 
in the Virginia suburbs are lined with 
shops selling Vietnamese fermented fish 
sauce, taro leaves, and Oriental melons. 
Even the supermarket chains have 
opened stores to cater to the interna- 
tional population, offering delicacies 
ranging from English chocolate biscuits 
and Russian caviar to Mexican peppers 
and Chinese mushrooms. 



America and Americans have made 
citizens of the world, as well as the cit- 
izens of the 50 states, welcome in their 
elegant and intriguing capital. This inter- 
national flavor has added color, culture, 
and sophistication to the District of 
Columbia's tradition of history, politics, 
and patriotism. 

-Brigitte Weeks, editor-in-chief, 
Book-of-the-Month Club 







Regional Side Trips 



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^State '■- r""' -'^ "" NHS 

Ephrata Cloister 
Landis Valley 

Farm Museum ■ PENNSVLVANW 
OIJTCH COUNTRY 



PHILAUbLPH 

Independence NHP 
18th century building; 
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Forge NHP. 



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Gettysburg NMP 
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Frederick 

18th and 19th century buildings 
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Lancaste 

18th & 19th century buildings 
Agricultural products 

Longwood Gardens 

WILMINGTON 

Chemical products 
Winterthur Museum 

New 
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buildings 



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Battlefield SP 




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NB 



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state 
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Fredericksburg 

Fredericksburg NMP 

18th & 19th century builtings 



'Charlottesville 

University of Virginia 
Montlcello & Ash Lawn 




Marltin e museum 
^0)ford 

V. O, 



DELAWARE fi/«i 



Cape May 
Resort area 
Victorian build 1 

Cape 
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Cape May- 
Lewes Ferry 



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Poultry pMducts 



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Resort area 



GeorgaWashington 
Jirthplace 6HW 



Stratford 
Hall 





I St. Mary's City 5\ 
17th century ^ 
colonial capital 



(611) 
Assateague SP\ 

Assateague ^ 
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Richmond 

State capital--^ , 

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aggie L. Walker I4HS| 
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PeteraBurg NB 

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Beyond Washington the Mid- 
dle Atlantic States are rich in 
history and natural beauty. It 
was here that the permanent 
settlement of America by Eu- 
ropeans began. The nature 
of the colonies' relationship 
to the Mother Country and 
to one another was debated 
in the various colonial capi- 
tals and in the homes of their 
leading citizens. Here the 
philosophical underpinnings 
of the new nation were ham- 
mered out and a war for in- 
dependence was successfully 
prosecuted. 

In a few days of sightsee- 
ing at National Park System 
sites and other areas, you can 
go from Jamestown, where 
English colonists first settled 
permanently; to Yorktown 
where the surrender of a Brit- 
ish army made independence 
a reality; and to Philadelphia 
where the colonists severed 
their political ties with Great 
Britain, and where, several 
years after Yorktown, the del- 
egates from the free and in- 
dependent states hammered 
out the words of the 
Constitution. 

In Baltimore you can see 
the fort where the bombard- 
ment took place that led to 
the writing of the "Star-Span- 
gled Banner." Finally you can 
see some of the great Civil 
War battlefields where the na- 
ture of the Federal Union was 
tested by combat. 

Besides all this historical 
heritage, the Middle Atlantic 
States offer an area of out- 
standing natural beauty, too. 
From the sandy shores of the 
Atlantic beaches to the ridge- 
tops of the Appalachians you 
can find an appealing array 
of Eastern hardwood forests 
interspersed with long 
stretches of rolling farmland. 
Today these forests harbor a 
white-tailed deer population 
probably greater than when 
the first Europeans arrived. 



More than 300 years of do- 
mestic architecture adds a dis- 
tinctive touch to the landscape 
throughout the Piedmont of 
Virginia, Maryland, and Penn- 
sylvania, and in fertile lands 
of the Shenandoah Valley of 
Virginia and West Virginia. 
The stone houses of south- 
eastern Pennsylvania give way 
to the grand frame and brick 
dwellings of the Tidewater, 
which are in turn replaced by 
the solid brick and log farm- 
houses of the western valleys. 

Chesapeake Bay exerts its 
pull on much of this land, too, 
for it is one of the world's 
great estuaries, with a shore- 
line several thousand miles 
long. The thousands of acres 
of wetlands renewed by the 
rise and fall of the tides are 
prime breeding grounds of 
the crabs and oysters for 
which the bay is justly famous. 
These same marshes, the hun- 
dreds of creeks and rivers 
draining into the bay, and a 
mild climate make this a ma- 
jor wintering ground for wa- 
terfowl. In the fall the air is 
filled with the sound of arriv- 
ing ducks and geese as they 
glean the farm fields and set- 
tle down for the winter. 

We usually think of cities 
as the home of distinct ethnic 
groups, but this region can 
lay claim to one of the few 
rural ethnic groups that exists 
in the United States: the Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. They are Ger- 
man and not Dutch, that mis- 
understanding coming from 
English-speaking settlers' cor- 
ruption of "deutsch," meaning 
German. For more than 200 
years now, these people have 
maintained their language, re- 
ligion, and way of life in a 
world that is increasingly at 
odds with their ideas. Their 
communities are centered on 
Lancaster County, Pennsylva- 
nia, a good day's outing from 
Washington. 

Throughout these states 



the National Park Service 
cares for a number of natural 
and historical areas. Most of 
these parks are managed by 
the National Capital Region 
of the National Park Service. 
Besides all the parks listed in 
the gazetteer section of this 
book, there are three outly- 
ing parks worthy of your at- 
tention. Antietam National 
Battlefield, Maryland, and 
Harpers Ferry National His- 
torical Park, West Virginia, 
commemorate events related 
to the Civil War and, at the 
latter, industrial history. See 
descriptions of them on pages 
161 and 166. Catoctin Moun- 
tain Park is a forested haven 
for relaxation and recreation 
in northern Maryland. See 
the information on page 161. 
If you have the time, take a 
side trip to one or more of 
the areas described in the 
following pages. And if you 
do not have the extra time 
now, plan on visiting some of 
these places during your next 
trip to Washington. 

A Note About This Map. 
Do not rely on this map to 
drive around the region. It is 
an introduction showing the 
locations of national parks 
and other sites along with 
some general notes about dif- 
ferent areas. Study it before 
you set out and use it in con- 
junction with a detailed road 
map. 

— Robert Grojjs, NPS writer-editor 



159 



Maryland and West Virginia 



The pleasures of the country just north 
and east of Washington are the plea- 
sures of wide open spaces and historic 
places, small town days and big city 
nights. 

One relaxing spot is Assateague 
Island, an Atlantic barrier isle of 
beaches, dunes, and salt marshes where 
you can settle comfortably into a pace 
as easy-going as the flow of the tides. 
Seasonal flocks of snow geese, mallards, 
and other waterfowl grace the island's 
two major preserves— Assateague Island 
National Seashore and Chincoteague 
National Wildlife Refuge. Camp, fish, 
hike, bike, or canoe at the Seashore; 
at Chincoteague, don t miss the wild 
ponies made famous by the children's 
book Misty of Chincoteague. The 
manmade playground-resort of Ocean 
City— paradise lost to some, sun-and-fun 
capital to others— lies just to the north. 

Further inland are the quaint villages 
and bustling metropolises surrounding 
Chesapeake Bay. Capt. John Smith 



declared the Chesapeake country a 
"delightsome land" in 1608, and it 
remains so today. The Eastern Shore, 
with its harbor towns of Oxford and St. 
Michaels, its scattered farms and wild 
lands, puts you in the down-to-earth 
company of fishermen, boatbuilders, 
and farmers. Across the bay is Annap- 
olis, a thriving city since colonial days. 
Wander its historic streets, take in an 
outdoor art festival or boat show, or 
journey through three centuries of 
history-at-sea on a tour of the U.S. Naval 




^•,-'* 



Above: Chincoteague ponies 
Background: Chesapeake Bay 



160 



Academy. In Baltimore, visit the city's 
symbol of rebirth, Inner Harbor; shop, 
eat to your stomach's content, and go 
sightseeing at the National Aquarium 
and nearby Fort McHenry. 

Many D.C. residents— even the 
President— like to escape to the Appa- 
lachian Mountains of Maryland for 
some R&R. While the President stays 
at well-guarded Camp David, ordinary 
folks can camp, hike, and, in winter, 
crosscountry ski next door in Catoctin 
Mountain Park. Two historic battlefields 




in the area— Antietam in Maryland, 
and Gettysburg in Pennsylvania— recall 
the sacrifices of two of the Civil War's 
bloodiest battles. 

At Harpers Ferry National Historical 
Park in West Virginia, history and nat- 
ural beauty converge. As you follow 
brick and cobblestone walks through 
this restored ISOOs town, the Blue Ridge 
Mountains surround you. Frequent talks 
by park rangers shed light on the town's 
turbulent past: a 19th-century center 
for gun-manufacturing and storage, the 
site of abolitionist John Brown's raid in 
1859, a strategic prize of Union and 
Confederate troops in the Civil War. Two 
mighty rivers, the Shenandoah and Poto- 
mac, meet here. Trails lead to outstand- 
ing views, and outfitters run raft and 
canoe trips. If you prefer hiking, the 
Appalachian Trail and the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal National Historical Park 
are just a footstep away. 



— Carolyn de Raismes, NFS writer-editor 




Virginia 



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The memorial to eminent Virginian 
Thomas Jefferson stands near one of 
the bridges linking Washington and Vir- 
ginia. Jefferson, who had a strong hand 
in the planning of Washington and was 
the first President inaugurated here, 
embodies the deep-rooted ties between 
Virginia and the Nation's Capital. You 
can gain a deeper understanding of the 
city's sites by exploring Virginia's past. 
Start with a trip through the Tidewa- 
ter region. George Washington Birth-"*^ 
place National Monument (right) 
overlooks the Potomac below Freder- 
icksburg, and a short distance downriver 
is Stratford Hall, where Confederate 
Gen. Robert E. Lee was born, as were 
his uncles Richard Henry and Francis 
Lightfoot Lee, signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 



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Above: Oxen at George Washirigion s DirtnpTace 
Background:.pun crew at Colonial WiHietfTisburg 






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Further south, just across the York 
River, lies York town Battlefield, where 

eneral Washington accepted the sur- 
render of British forces in 1781. This 
<^ Revolutionary War site is connected by 
Colonial Parkway to Jamestown, where 
the story began 174 years earlier with 
the planting of the first successful 
English colony in America. Between 
them is Williamsburg (below), the 
restored colonial capital whose formal 
mall is echoed in L'Enfant's plan for 
Washington. Nearby Carter's Grove has 
been called the most beautiful of the 
Tidewater plantation houses. 

Richmond's historic sites are worth 
the two-hour trip from Washington. At 
St. John's Church, Patrick Henry deliv- 
ered his impassioned "Give me liberty 
or give me death" speech. Besides the 



National Battlefield Park, Civil War 
buffs will want to visit the White House 
of the Confederacy. Emblematic of the 
progress made by some blacks after the 
war is Maggie Walker National Historic 
Site, home of an ex-slave's daughter who 
became president of a bank. Richmond 
also has a rich architectural heritage. 
Jefferson himself designed the Virginia 
State Capitol. 

Another enjoyable day trip takes you 
south along Skyline Drive through Shen- 
andoah National Park for its views of 
the Shenandoah Valley. Turn east at 
Waynesboro and go to Charlottesville 
to visit the University of Virginia, 
another product of Jefferson's fertile 
mind, and Monticello, his hilltop home. 

— William Gordon, NFS wi*iter-editor 






^^ 









Philadelphia and Independence 



A straight shot north on Interstate 95 
from Washington takes the traveler to 
Philadelphia and Independence Nation- 
al Historical Park— the most historic 
square mile in the country. 

Independence Hall (formerly the 
Pennsylvania State House) shines as the 
crown jewel of the park's cluster of his- 
toric buildings. It was in the Assembly 
Room, now restored, of this impressive 
Georgian building that the leaders of 
the Revolution adopted three of the 
Nation's most formative political docu- 
ments: the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the Articles of Confederation, and 
the Federal Constitution. 

Philadelphia served as the Nation's 
Capital for a decade, 1790-1800, while 
a new one was being built in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Two buildings flank- 
ing Independence Hall were swept into 
federal service at this time. Congress 
Hall on the west became the meeting 
place of the House and the Senate, and 
the Old City Hall on the east became 



the seat of the Supreme Court. 

Independence Square, the park-like 
setting for these venerable buildings, 
is itself two centuries old. In 1736 the 
Pennsylvania legislature declared the 
ground "a public open green" forever. 
By 1787, the year of the Constitution, 
a new landscaping plan graced the yard. 
Serpentine gravel paths leading through 
a variety of shrubs and trees made the 
square a restful place to stroll. 

Everyone wants to see and touch the 
Liberty Bell, which is displayed in a 
pavilion north of Independence Hall. 
Cast in 1753 for the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, the 
State House 
bell tolled 
on all pubHc 
occasions— 
notably on 
July 4, 1776, 
at the first 
public read- 
ing of the 




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From left: Independence Hail. Liberty Bell, Assembly Room 



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164 



Declaration of Independence. When a 
long-standing crack finally spoiled the 
tone early in the next century, the bell 
was retired from use. But abolitionists 
soon drew national attention to the bell 
when they claimed it as their symbol, 
citing its Biblical inscription, "Proclaim 
Liberty throughout all the Land unto 
all the inhabitants thereof." Thus Ameri- 
cans call it the Liberty Bell and hold it 
as an enduring symbol of American 
freedom. 

Nearby Carpenters' Hall reminds us 
of the beginnings of the constitutional 
struggle with Great Britain. In 1774 the 

First Continen- 
tal Congress 
gathered 
here to 
give voice 
to the 
colonists' 
mounting 
grievances 
against 




the mother country. The steps the del- 
egates took led directly to the Second 
Continental Congress, which declared 
independence and launched the new 
nation. 

Franklin Court delights visitors with 
a celebration of that many-sided genius, 
Benjamin Franklin. A steel frame in the 
interior court outlines his Philadelphia 
home, now gone. An underground 
museum portrays his career as a printer, 
scientist, politician, and diplomat. 

Visitors to the park also can learn 
something of day-to-day living in 18th- 
century America. The Bishop White 
House, the home of the first Episcopal 
bishop in America, reflects the lifestyle 
of the affluent. The Todd House down 
the street was the home of John and 
Dolley (later Madison) Todd. You can 
catch a glimpse here of how a middle- 
income Quaker family lived. 

— Coxey Toogood^ NFS historian 




Civil War Sites 



Interested in the Civil War? Washington 
offers many attractions to satisfy your 
craving, among them Ford's Theatre, 
The House Where Lincoln Died, the 
Lincoln Memorial, and, across the Poto- 
mac, Arlington House, the onetime 
home of Robert E. Lee. 

Beyond these, if you have the time, 
you might want to visit one or two of 
the battlefields maintained by the 
National Park Service within a few 
hours drive of the city. Most feature 
self-guiding auto tours. 

Perhaps the war's best-known battle- 
field is preserved at Gettysburg National 
Military Park, north of Washington in 
Pennsylvania. The battles fought here 
in July 1863 ended Robert E. Lee's 
second — and final — invasion of the 
North and marked the beginning of the 
end for the Southern Confederacy. The 
park also contains the national ceme- 
tery that President Abraham Lincoln 



Union and Confederate Civil War regalia and 
artifacts from national park collections 



helped to dedicate on November 19, 
1863, with his brief but enduring Get- 
tysburg Address. 

Antietam National Battlefield, north- 
west of Washington in Maryland, is 
almost as well known as Gettysburg. 
Here, on September 17, 1862, Lee's first 
northern invasion was turned back in 
the bloodiest single day's fighting of the 
war. Be sure to see the film at the visi- 
tor center. 

Near Antietam, in West Virginia, is 
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, 
scene of abolitionist John Brown's 1859 
raid, which added to the atmosphere 
of hostility and fear that helped bring 
about the Civil War. Though not a bat- 
tlefield in the traditional sense, the town 
was much fought over by both armies 
and changed hands many times. 

In Virginia, southwest of Washington, 
Manassas National Battlefield Park com- 
memorates two battles fought in the 




vicinity of a small stream known as Bull 
Run. The first, in July 1861, was the 
war's first major land battle; the second, 
on nearly the same ground just over a 
year later, cleared the way for Lee's first 
invasion of the North. Both were Union 
defeats. 

The famous battlefields of Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, 
and Spotsylvania Court House are pre- 
served south of Washington at Freder- 
icksburg and Spotsylvania County 
Battlefields Memorial National Military 
Park. Several sites associated with Gen. 
George B. McClellan's 1862 Peninsula 
Campaign and Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 
1864 operations against Richmond and 
Petersburg can be found within Rich- 



mond National Battlefield Park south 
of Fredericksburg. The park's 57-mile 
auto tour route passes forts, trenches, 
and portions of the battlefields of 
Ellerson's Mill, Gaines' Mill, Cold Har- 
bor, Seven Pines, Savage Station, 
Frayser's Farm, Malvern Hill, and others. 

South of Richmond, Petersburg 
National Battlefield commemorates the 
1864-1865 siege of Petersburg, where the 
last major Confederate stand of the Civil 
War took place. Don't miss the ''War 
Room" and its audiovisual re-creation 
of the siege and events that led to the 
Confederate retreat from Petersburg and 
Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomat- 
tox Court House on April 9, 1865. 

Appomattox is a little far for a side 
trip from Washington, but dedicated 
Civil War students will make the trip. 

— Raymond Baker, NFS writer-editor 




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Washington provides countless vistas 
rich in beauty and historical connota- 
tions. From Arlington House— with its 
ties to the Washington, Custis, and Lee 
families and to the Civil War— the 
setting embraces the Kennedy graves 
in Arlington Cemetery, Memorial 
Bridge, the Potomac River. Lincoln 
Memorial, and numerous other sites 
commemorating major events and per- 
sonages in our national heritage. 



Index 

Numbers in italics refer to 
photographs, illustrations, or 
maps. Generally, visiting hours 
and other information are 
listed on the same page as 
photos of a site. 

Accokeek, Md. 122-23 
Accokeek Foundation, Inc. 123 
Adams, John 83, 92; Adams 
Building, Library of Congress 
61 

Adams, John Quincy 48, 70, 
86,92, 120 
Adams-Morgan 156 
African mask J 50-5 1 
Airports 40 
Alba Madonna 78 
Alexandria, Va. 23, 105, 124- 
28, 132 

AH, Muhammed 75 
American Architectural Foun- 
dation 90 

American Folk Life Festival 
138 

American Forestry Association 
49 

American National Red Cross 
91, 118 

American Revolution 163 
Anacostia Museum 70,105, 
106 

Anacostia River 38, 111 
Anderson House 150 
Annapolis, Md. 23, 160 
Antietam National Battlefield, 
Md. 161, 167 
Appalachian Trail 161 
Apollo 11 73 

Apotheosis of Washington 54 
Appomattox Court House 
National Historical Park, Va. 
167 

Arena Stage 148 
Arlington House, the Robert 
E. Lee Memorial, Va., 23, 
105, 124-25, 168-69 
Arlington National Cemetery 
19.23,42, 105, 125, 139 
Armed Forces Medical 
Museum 105, 106, 151 
Arthur, Chester A. 88 
Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 70. 
71, 154 

Articles of Confederation 164 
Arts and Industries Building71 
Assateague Island National 
Seashore, Md. and Va. 160 



Athenaeum, The, Va. 105, 125 

Bacon, Henry 100, 101 
Baltimore 161 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
120 

Baltimore Orioles 41 
Baltimore-Washington Interna- 
tional Airport 40 
Bannecker, Benjamin 51 
Barron, James 89 
Bartholdi fountain 64, 145, 146 
Barton, Clara. See Clara Bar- 
ton National Historic Site 
Baruch, Bernard 90 
Benjamin, Judah P. 89 
Bicycling 115, 126, 140 
Billof Rights 31, J2.U 76, 
128 

Bishop White House 165 
Belle Haven Marina 126 
Bethune, Mary McLeod. See 
Mary McLeod Bethune 
Council House 
Blair House 85 
Black History Trail 88, 106 
Bliss, Robert Woods, Mr. and 
Mrs. 107 

Blue Ridge Mountains, Va. 
161 

B'nai BVith Klutznick 
Museum 150 
Boating 153, 161 
Booth, John Wilkes 66 
Boyhood Home of Robert E. 
Lee, The 105, 132 
Braddock, Edward 126 
Brown, John 132, 161, 166 
Bruce, Ailsa Mellon 78 
Brumidi, Constantino 55 
Bryce, James 9 
Buckland, William 128 
Bulfinch, Charles 52 
Bull Run. See Manassas 
National Battlefield Park 
Burghers of Calais 71 
Buses 41 

Calder, Alexander: mobile 

77-78 

Calhoun, John C. 48, 70 

Camping 161 

Canada, Embassy of 155 

Canals 19, 119, 120-21, 138 

Capital Children's Museum 64, 

152 

Capitol. See U.S. Capitol 

Carlyle House 105, 126 



Carpenter, Frank 138 
Carpenter's Hall, Pa. 165 
Carter, Jimmy 85 
Carter Barron Amphitheater 

115 

Carter's Grove, Va. 163 

Catoctin Mountain Park, Md. 

161 

Celebrations 138. See also 
Chinese New Year, Fourth of 
July 

Chancellorsville, Va. 167 
Charlottesville, Va. 163 
Chase, Salmon P. 59 
Cherry blossoms 98-99, 138 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
National Historical Park, Md. 
19, mbJ06, 107, \19, 120-21, 
143, 152-53, 161 
Chesapeake Bay 160-61 
Children's activities 89, 152-53. 
See also Capita! Children's 
Museum, Celebrations, Ches- 
apeake and Ohio Canal, God- 
dard Space Flight Center, 
National Aquarium, National 
Capital Trolley Museum, 
National Colonial Farm, 
National Geographic Society, 
Oxon Hill Farm, Pierce Mill, 
Smithsonian 

Chincoteague National Wild- 
life Refuge 160-61 
Chinda, Viscountess 99 
Chinese New Year 156-57 
Civil War: artifacts 23, 106, 
107, 108-9, 161, 1 66-67; siiQs: 
23,24,66,100-101,107,108-9, 
125, 129, 146-47, 161, 163, 
166-67 

Clara Barton National His- 
toric Site, Md. 105, 118 
Claude Moore Colonial Farm, 
Va. 105, 126, 152 
Clay, Henry 48, 49, 89 
Climate 40 

Coats of arms, foreign nations 
154-55 

Columbia Historical Society, 
105, 107 

Columbus Memorial Fountain 
55, 146 

Concerts 82-83, 136-37, 138, 
141, 149 

Constitution, U.S. M, 32-33, 
76, 128, 164 

Constitution Gardens 101, 
102-3, 146 



170 



Coolidge Auditorium 61 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum 70 
Corcoran Gallery of Art 90, 
91 149 

Cox, Allyn 55 
Crawford, Thomas 52 
Cumberland, Md. 120, 121 
Cunningham, Ann Pamela 
130, 131 

Custis, Eleanor Parke 134 
Custis, George Washington 
Parke 125 

Daingerfield Island Marina, 

Va. 126 

Daughters of the American 
Revolution National Society 
Headquarters 91 
Decatur House 89 
Declaration of Independence 
M, 32-33, 61,76, 162, 164, 
165 

Dentzel Carousel 119 
Diamond, James 81 
District of Columbia: courts 
52; street plan 42, 46-47: 
World War Memorial 147 
District Settlers Memorial 147 
Douglas, WUIiam O. 121 
Douglass, Frederick. See Fred- 
erick Douglass National 
Historic Site 
Downtown 46-47, 80-81 
Dumbarton Oaks 19, 105, 
106-7, 143, 151 
Dupont Circle 1 1 
Dyke Marsh, Va. 126 

East Potomac Park 102 
Eastern Shore 160 
Eggers, Otto 99 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 49, 92 
Ellicott, Andrew 51 
Ellipse 17, 82, 138 
Embassy Row 31, 155 
Erie Canal 120 

Fairfax, Sarah 126 
Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion (FBI) 67 
Fendall, Phillip 128 
Fifty-six Signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence 
Memorial, The 146 
Fiiene Center. See Wolf Trap 
Farm Park 

First Continental Congress 
165 



Folger Shakespeare Library 

19, 60, 148-49 
Football 41 
Ford, Gerald 85 
Ford's Theatre 66-67, 148, 166 
Fort Circle Parks 106, 108-9 
Fort Dupont Park 105, 707 
Fort Foote 109 
Fort Hunt 126 
Fort Marcy 126 
Fort McHenry, Md. 68, 161 
Fort Stevens 108, 109 
Fort Washington, Md. 105, 
108, 118-19 

Fountain of the Court of Nep- 
tune. See Neptune Fountain 
Fountains 145. See also 14, 31, 
55, 60, 76, 77, 82, 146, 147 
Fourth of July Celebration 17, 
35, 138 

France, Embassy of 154-55 
Franklin, Benjamin 92,116,165 
Franklin Court, Pa. 165 
Freedom Plaza, 6, 67, 146 
Freer Gallery of Art 70 
Frederick Douglass National 
Historic Site 42, 105, 110 
Fredericksburg, Va. 162 
Fredericksburg and Spot- 
sylvania County Battlefields 
Memorial National Military 
Park, Va. 167 

French, Daniel Chester 100 
Friendship Fire Engine Com- 
pany 105, 126 

Gallatin, Albert 88 

Garden Club of Virginia 128 

Gardens 142-43. See also 
Anderson House, Dumbarton 
Oaks, Gunston Hall, Haupt 
Garden, Kenilworth Aquatic 
Gardens, Lyndon Baines 
Johnson Memorial Grove, Old 
Stone House, U.S. Botanic 
Garden, U.S. National 
Arboretum 

Garfield, James A. 71, 76, 84 
Garth Fountain 147 
Geese 123 

George Washington Birthplace 
National Monument, Va. 162 
George Washington Masonic 
National Memorial, Va. 105, 
127 

George Washington Memorial 
Parkway, Md. and Va. 105, 
126, 129, 132, 140, 145 



Georgetown 19, 38, 105, //a 

120, 121 

Georgetown University 22, 41, 

155 

Gettysburg National Military 

Park, Pa. 23, 161, 166 

Gilbert, Cass 57 

Glen Echo, Md. 118 

Glen Echo Park, Md. 105, 119 

Globe Theater 148 

Goddard Space Flight Center, 

Md. 122 

Grant, Ulysses S. 167 

Grant Memorial 146-47 

Great Falls Park, Va. 105, 

126-27 

Great FaUs Tavern, Md. 105, 

119, 120-121 

Greenbelt Park, Md. 105, 122 

Grief 144 

Gunston Hall Plantation 105, 

128 

Gutenberg Bible 62 

Hadfield, George 125 
Hahnemann, Samuel 144 
Hains Point 7, 145 
Hamilton, Alexander 50, 88 
Handicapped, facilities for 41, 
43, 48, 82 
Hanks, Nancy 67 
Harding, Warren G. 117 
Harrison, Benjamin 84, 115 
Harpers Ferry National His- 
torical Park, W. Va. 132,161, 
166 

Hart, Frederick 93 
Haupt Garden, Enid A. 70-71. 
142, 143 

Hayes, Rutherford B. 84, 87 
Henry, Patrick 163 
Heurich, Christian 107 
Higgins, Daniel 99 
Hiking 126, 127. 132, 143, 161 
Hillwood 105, 110 
Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden 71 
Hispanic Festival 156 
Hoban, James 82, 84, 85 
Hoover, Herbert 84 
Hope Diamond 74 
Horseback riding 127 
Horse racing 41 
House Where Lincoln Died 
66, 67, 166 

Howard University 41, 150 
Howe, Elias 75 
Hughes, Charles Evans 57 



171 



Index 

Ice hockey 41 

Inaugurations 14, 48, 71, 162 
Independence National Histor- 
ical Park, Pa. 164-65 
International Community 
154-57 

International Monetary Fund 
154 

International Visitors Informa- 
tion Center (IVIS) 40 
Islamic Center 105, 110,777, 
155 

Iwo Jima Memorial. See U.S. 
Marine Corps War Memorial 

Jackson, Andrew, 18, 19, 84,90 
Jamestown National Historic 
Site, Va. 159, 163 
Jay, John 58, 92 
Jefferson, Thomas 50, 83, 84, 
86, 162, 163; Jefferson Build- 
ing, Library of Congress 61-62; 
Memorial 28-29, 98-99 
Jenkins HUI 51 
John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts 24, 92-93, 
148 

Johnson, Lady Bird. See Lady 
Bird Johnson Park 
Johnson, Lyndon Baines 49, 
85. See also Lyndon Baines 
Johnson Memorial Grove 

Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens 

38, 105, 777, 143 
Kennedy, John F. 19, 85, 88, 
92, 125. See also John F. Ken- 
nedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts 

Kennedy, Robert F. 23 
Key, Francis Scott 68, 75 
Khrushchev, Nikita 116 
King, Martin Luther, Memo- 
rial Library. See Martin 
Luther King Memorial Library 
Kreeger Theater 148 
Kosciuszko, Thaddeus 90 
Lady Bird Johnson Park 
129, 142 

Lafayette, marquis de 48, 90 
Lafayette Park 18, 19, 90 
Latrobe, Benjamin H. 52, 55, 
88.89 

LeDroit Park 150 
Lee, Ann Hill Carter 132 
Lee, Francis Lightfoot 162 
Lee, Henry "Light Horse 
Harry" 128, 132 



Lee, Mary Custis 125 
Lee, Richard Henry 162 
Lee, Robert E. 132, 162, 166, 
167. See also Boyhood Home 
of Robert E. Lee, Arlington 
House 

Lee-FendaU House 105, 128 
UEnfant, Pierre Charles 51, 
1 38 

L'Enfant Plan 9-1 1,67, 96, 
102, 138; maps 6, 50-51 
Lewis, John L. 128 
Lewis, Lawrence 134 
Liberty BeU 164-65 
Library of Congress 14, 75, 
31,^7, 62-63, 146, 149 
Lillian and Albert Small Jew- 
ish Museum 150 
Lin, Maya Ying 93 
Lincoki, Abraham 49, 66, 108, 
139, 166; Memorial 24, 30, 
100-101, 102, 139, 168-69. See 
also Ford's Theatre, House 
Where Lincoln Died 
Lincoln, Mary Todd 66 
Lincoln, Robert Todd 66, 101 
Lincoln Memorial Commis- 
sion 100 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 
31 

Lyceum, The, Va. 105, 128 
Lyndon Baines Johnson 
Memorial Grove on the Poto- 
mac 105, 128, 129 

McCellan, George B. 167 
McKim, Mead, and White 85 
McLean, Va. 126, 152 
MacLeod, WiUiam 52 
Madison, DoUey Todd 83, 90, 
165 

Madison, James 90; Madison 
Building, Library of Congress 
61 

Maggie L. Walker National 
Historic Site, Va. 163 
Malabar fountain 147 
Malcolm X Park. See Merid- 
ian Hill Park 

Mall, The 7, 17,42,^^-^5, 
68-69, 102, 138, 146, 153 
Martin Luther King Memorial 
Library 66 

Manassas National Battlefield 
Park, Va. 105, 729, 166 
Maps 45, 46A7, 51, 80-81, 104, 
108-9, 158 
Marinas 126 



Marshall, John 58 
Maryland Department of 
Transportation 40 
Mason, George 23; home 128 
Mellon, Andrew W. 78 
MeUon, Paul 78 
Meridian Hill Park 143, 147 
Metro. See Washington 
Metropolitan Area Transit 
Authority 

Metropolitan area map 104 
Michel, Nathaniel 114, 115 
Middle Atlantic region 755-59 
Military tatoo 138 
MiUs, Robert 96 
Misty of Chicoteague 160 
Monroe, James 83, 85, 86 
Monticello, Va. 163 
Moorland-Spingarn Research 
Center 150 

Morse, Samuel F. B. 49 
Mount Vernon, Va. 42, 105, 
108, 129, 130-31, 134 
Mount Vernon Ladies' Asso- 
ciation of the Union 131 
Museums 19, 41, 1\, 150-51. 
See also individual museums 

National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, Md. 
105, 122 

National Air and Space 
Museum 17, 72-73 
National Aquarium, Md. 88, 
161 

National Archives 3\,76 
National Archives for Black 
Women's History 88 
National Building Museum 64, 
757 

National Capital Trolley 
Museum, Md. 105, 722, 
152-53 

National Colonial Farm, Md. 
105, 722-2?, 152 
National Gallery of Art 19, 
20-21, 76, 77-79, 149 
National Geographic Society 89 
National Holocaust Memorisd 
Museum 151 

National Museum of African 
Art 70-71 

National Museum of Ameri- 
can Art 65 

National Museum of Ameri- 
can History 31,68, 75 
National Museum of Natural 
History 68, 74, 75, 153 



172 



National Museum of Women 
in the Arts 65, 150 
National Park Service 10, 

23-24,38-39, 66, 127, 141, 
142-43; National Capital 
Region 109, 159; tourist infor- 
mation 36-37, 40, 42. See also 
Antietam National Battlefield, 
Md.; Appomatox Court 
House National Historical 
Park, Va.; Arlington House, 
The Robert E. Lee Memorial, 
Va.; Assateague Island 
National Seashore, Md. and 
Va.; Chesapeake & Ohio 
Canal National Historical 
Park, Md.,D.C., and W.Va.; 
Clara Barton National Historic 
Site, Md.; Fort McHenry 
National Monument and His- 
toric Shrine, Md.; Frederick 
Douglass National Historic 
Site, D.C.; Fredericksburg 
and Spotsylvania County 
Battlefields-Memorial National 
Military Park, Va.; George 
Washington Birthplace Na- 
tional Monument, Va.; Gettys- 
burg National Military Park, 
Pa.; Greenbelt Park, Md.; 
Harpers Ferry National Histor- 
ical Park, W.Va.; Independ- 
ence National Historical Park, 
Pa.; Jamestown National His- 
toric Site, Va.; Maggie L. 
Walker National Historic Site, 
Va.; Manassas National 
Battlefield Park, Va.; Old Post 
Office Tower, D.C.; Old Stone 
House, D.C.; Oxon Hill Farm, 
Md.; Petersburg National Bat- 
tlefield, Va.; Prince William 
Forest Park, Va.; Richmond 
National Battlefield Park, Va.; 
Shenandoah National Park, 
Va.; York town, Va.; Wolf Trap 
Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts, Va. 

National Portrait Gallery 65 
National Presbyterian Church 
149 

National Shrine of the Immac- 
ulate Conception 105, ///. 149 
National Symphony Orchestra 
148 

National Theater 148 
National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 134 



National Zoological Park 69, 

105, 112, 152 

Native American Arts and 

Crafts 92 

Navy-Marine Memorial 144^5 

Navy Memorial Museum 105, 

113, 151 

Neighborhoods 9, 10, 19,31, 

38, 105, 110, 120, 121, 155,156 

Neptune Fountain 14, 31, 60, 

146 

Netherlands CariUon 105, 133 

Nevelson, Louise 145 

New Playwrights Theater 149 

Nixon, Richard 85, 102 

Northern Virginia Fine Arts 

Association 125 

Octagon, The 90-91 

Old Post Office Tower 6, 67, 

138 

Old Stone House 38, 105, 113, 

142 

Olmsted, Frederick Law 49, 

115 

OIney Summer Theater, Md. 

149 

Orangutan 112 

Organization of American 

States, 91, 154-55 

Oxford, Md. 160 

Oxon Hill Farm, Md. 105, 

122-23, 152 

Pandas 112 
Paul, Alice 60 
Pei, LM. 77, 78 
Pennsylvania Avenue 6, 11, 14 
Pentagon 105, 132 
Performing Arts 92-93, 115, 
148-49 

Perry, Matthew 99 
Perry, Roland H. 146 
Pershing Park 25-27, 67, 142 
Petersburg National Battle- 
Held, Va. 167 
Petersen, William 60 
Phillips Collection, The 19, 
105, 114, 149 
Phyfe, Duncan 83 
Picnicking 140-41 
Pierce, Franklin 84 
Pierce MUl 16, 114, 115 
Piscataway Park, Md. 105, 
122-23 

Planetarium 73, 115 
Ponies 160 
Pope, John Russell 77, 98 99 



Pope-Leighey House 134, 135 
Potomac River 12-13, 100, 
120, 127, 129, 130, 161, 162 
Potowmack Canal Company 
120, 127 

Prince William Forest Park, 
Va. 105, 132 

Ramsay House Visitors Cen- 
ter, Va. 124, 132 
Rawlins Park 142 
Reagan, Ronald 85, 87 
Reflecting Pool 30 
Renwick Gallery 90 
Resolute, HMS 87 
Revere, Paul 88 
Richmond National Battlefield 
Park, Va. 163 
Robinson, Jackie 75 
Rochambeau, comte de 90 
Rock Creek Park 16, 105, 
114-15, 142, 143 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 48, 86, 
98 

Roosevelt, Theodore 86, 132. 
See also Theodore Roosevelt 
Island 

Rose Garden 142 
Rosenthal, Joe 133 
Royal Danish BaUet 149 

Sackler, Arthur M. See 

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery 

St. John's Church (DC.) 85, 

88 

St. John's Church (Richmond, 

Va.) 163 

St. Michaels, Md. 160 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 144 

Sears, WiUiam 128 

Second Continental Congress 

165 

Sewall-Belmont House 

National Historic Site 60 

Shaw, W. B. 1 1 1 

Shenandoah National Park, 

Va. 163 

Shenandoah River 161 

Skylab 73 

Skyline Drive 163 

Small, Lillian and Albert. See 

Lillian and Albert Small 

Jewish Museum 

Smith, John 160 

Smithson, James 17, 68, <59, 70 

Smithsonian Institution 17, 64, 

68-75. See also individual 

museums 



173 



Index 



Society of the Cincinnati 150 
Southern Raih-oad locomotive 
7S 

Spirit of St. Lous 17, 68, 73 
Sports 23, 41, 115, 126, 140, 
153, 161 

Stabler-Leadbeater Apothe- 
cary Shop, 105, 132, 
Stanton, Edwin 66, 114 
Statuary HaU 48 
Statue of Freedom 49, 52 
Statues 55, 57, 144-47 
Stradivarius instruments 61, 
63 

Stuart, GUbert 83 
Stuart, J. E. B. 132 
Studio Theatre 148 
Sylvan Theater 96 

Taft, Helen Manning 99 
Taft, WUliam Howard 57, 59, 
100, 125 

Takamine, Jokichi 99 
Taxicabs 43 
Tayloe III, John 90 
TextUe Museum 105, 116,151 
Theater 19, 24, 96. See also 
Performing Arts 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
12-13, 24, 105, 132, 133 
Thornton, William 51 , 52, 90, 
134 

Ticketplace 41 
Ticketron 41 

Tidal Basin 99, 138, 142-43, 153 
Tidewater Virginia 162-63 
Todd House, Pa. 165 
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier 
139 

Tourist Information 40-41, 72. 
See also Maps 

Tourmobile Sightseeing Ser- 
vices, 43 

Transportation 40-43 
Trees 49 

Truman, Harry 85 
Tsutakawa, George 147 

Union Station, 40, 64, 146 
U.S. Botanic Garden 64, 143, 
145 

U.S. Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing 67 

U.S. Capitol 14, 42, 48-57, 82, 
84; burning of 52, 61 ; illustra- 
tions 4-5, 6, 48-55, 68, 103 
U.S. Civilian Conservation 
Corps 132 



U.S. Court of Claims 90 
U.S. Department of the Inte- 
rior, 92, 151 

U.S. Department of State 92 
U.S. Department of the Trea- 
sury 11,86,88 

U.S. House of Representatives 
48,51,52,55,56 
U.S. Marine Band The Pres- 
ident's Own" 82-83, 136-37 
U.S. Marine Corps War 
Memorial 105, 133 
U.S. National Arboretum 105, 
116-17 

U.S. Naval Academy 23, 41, 
160-61 

U.S. Naval Observatory 105, 
113 

U.S. Navy Band 141 
U.S. Navy Memorial 66 
U.S. Patent Office 65 
U.S. Senate 51, 52, 56, 57 
U.S. Supreme Court 8, 14, 48, 
52, 56-59 

University of Maryland 41 
University of Virginia 163 

V-2 rocket 68 

Van Buren, Martin 89 

Victoria, queen of England 

87 

Vietnam Veterans Memorial 

93-95, 144 

Voice of America 64 

Walker, Maggie L. See 

Maggie L. Walker National 
Historic Site 
Walter, Thomas U. 52 
War of 1812 52, 61,83, <^^-(55, 
118 

Washington, George 23, 51 , 82, 
92, 120, 124-25, 126, 128, 129, 
130, 163; paintings of 65,66,83. 
See also George Washington 
Birthplace, George Washing- 
ton Masonic National Mem- 
orial, George Washington 
Memorial Parkway, Wash- 
ington Monument, Washing- 
ton s Grist Mill 
Washington, Martha 129, 130 
Washington Bullets 41 
Washington Capitals 41 
Washington Cathedral 9, 19, 
105, 116, 117, 147, 149 
Washington Dolls' House and 
Toy Museum 153 



Washington-Dulles Interna- 
tional Airport 40-41 
Washington Hebrew Congre- 
gation 146 

Washington Metropolitan 
Area Transit Authority (Metro) 
31,42-43 

Washington Monument 11,35, 
96-97, 102-3, 139, 144 
Washington National Airport 
40 

Washington National Monu- 
ment Society 96 
Washington Post 105, 117 
Washington Project for the 
Arts 150 

Washington Redskins 41, 138 
Washington's Grist Mill His- 
torical State Park, Va. 105, 134 
Watterston, George 96 
Webster, Daniel 48 
Weldon, Felix W. de 133 
West, Benjamin 92 
West, John, Jr. 125 
West Potomac Park 100, 102 
Western Plaza. See Freedom 
Plaza 

Wheaton, Md. 122 
Whistler, James 70 
White House 17, 83, 84-85, 90, 
142; illustrations cover, 2-3, 
82-87 

Whitman, Walt 139 
Whitney, Eli 75 
Wilkes, Charles 64 
WiUard Hotel 25 
Williamsburg, Va. 162-63 
WUson, Edith BoUing 117 
Wilson, Woodrow 48, 117 
WUson House 105, 117 
Winthrop, Robert 97 
Wolf Trap Farm Park, 24, 105, 
134, 149 

Woodlawn Plantation 105, 134, 
135 

World Bank 154 
Wright, Frank Lloyd 134 
Wright Brothers' plane 68, 73 

X-1 73 

York River 163 

Yorktown, Va. 159, 163 

Zero milestone 82, 147 
Zimmerman, Elyn 147 



174 



Credits 



Photographs and artwork not 
otherwise credited are from 
the files of the National Park 
Service. 

Cover Robert Lautman; 2-3 
Steve Gottlieb. 

Parti 

4-5 Andrew Lautman; 6 Carol 
Highsmith; 8 Robert Laut- 
man; 10 Robert Lautman; 
12-13 ©Robert Llewellyn; 
15 Robert Lautman; 16 Robert 
Lautman; 18 Andrew Laut- 
man; 20-21 Andrew Lautman; 
22 © Robert Llewellyn; 24-25 
Carol Highsmith; 26-27 
Andrew Lautman; 29 Robert 
Lautman; 30 Robert Lautman: 
32-33 Robert Lautman; 35 
Chip Clark. 

Part 2 

36-37 Robert Lautman; 38-39 
Robert Lautman; 40-41 
Andrew Lautman; 42-43 
Uniphoto; 44-45 Carol High- 
smith; 46-47 R. R. Donnelley 
& Sons, Co.; 48 Mae Scanlan; 
49-Statue of Freedom Robert 
Lautman; 50-51-L'Enfant 
Plan Library of Congress; 
50-Diamond design Mary- 
land Historical Society; 51- 
Thornton design Library of 
Congress; 52-53 Department 
of State; 54-55 U.S. Capitol 
Historical Society; 55-detail 
Mae Scanlan; 56-57 Robert 
Lautman; 58-59 Robert 
Shafer; 58-59-portraits Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, Smith- 
sonian Institution; 60-Folger 
Michael Freeman; 60-foun- 
tain Harry Abrams, Inc.; 60- 
Alice Paul Library of Con- 
gress; 61 Library of Congress/ 
Stephen Shore; 62-63 Harry 
Abrams, Inc.; 64-Botanic 
Gardens Mae Scanlan; 64- 
Capital Children's Museum 
exterior Chip Clark; 65 Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery Smith- 
sonian Institution/Robert 
Lautman; 67-Ford's exterior 
Andrew Lautman; 68-69 
Robert Lautman; 69-Smith- 



son National Portrait Gallery, 
Smithsonian Institution; 70-71 
Smithsonian Institution; 71- 
sculpture Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, Smith- 
sonian Institution; 72-73 Air 
and Space Museum, Smith- 
sonian Institution; 74-dia- 
mond Natural History 
Museum, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution; 74-rotunda Chip 
Clark; 75 Museum of Ameri- 
can History, Smithsonian In- 
stitution; 76 Robert Lautman; 
77 National Gallery of Art; 
78-79 National Gallery of Art; 
80-81 R.R. Donnelley & 
Sons, Co.; 82-83 United States 
Marine Band; 83-Blue Room 
National Geographic Society; 
84-85 St. John's Episcopal 
Church; 85-inset burning of 
Washington Library of Con- 
gress; 86-87 White House; 
Si-Resolute Department of 
the Navy; 88 Mae Scanlan; 
89-National Geographic Soci- 
ety Robert Lautman; 90- 
Renwick Robert Lautman; 
90-91-desk Mae Scanlan; 91- 
museum Corcoran Gallery of 
Art; 92-desk Department of 
State; 95 Paula Wolf son; 
96-97 Robert Lautman; 98-99 
Mae Scanlan; 100-101 Robert 
Lautman; 102-103 Robert 
Lautman; 103-inset Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston; 104 
Greenhorne & O'Mara, Inc.; 
106-107-Dumbarton Uni- 
photo; 110-street Uniphoto; 
1 1 1-Islamic Center Mae 
Scanlan; Ill-Shrine Mae 
Scanlan; 112 National Zoo, 
Smithsonian Institution; 113 
Mae Scanlan; 114-museum 
Phillips Collection/Andrew 
Lautman; 116-1 17- Arboretum 
Lelia Hendren; 116-Cathedral 
Chip Clark; 1 17-Wilson House 
National Trust for Historic 
Preservation; 118-Barton 
house Robert Shafer; 1 18-1 19 
Robert Lautman; 120-121 
Robert Lautman; 122-trolley 
Mae Scanlan; 124-125- 
Arlington House Maxwell 
MacKenzie; 125-Arlington 



Cemetery Robert Shafer; 
126-Carlyle House Mae 
Scanlan; 127-Masonic Mem- 
orial Mae Scanlan; 130-131 
Robert Lautman; 133-Iwo 
Jima Memorial Marvin Wurtz. 

Part 3 

136-137 Andrew Lautman; 
139 Robert Shafer; 141-band 
Andrew Lautman; 142-inset 
Smithsonian Institution; 144- 
Bartholdi fountain Robert 
Lautman; 146-147-Grant Me- 
morial Robert Lautman; 148- 
149-actors Folger Theater; 
149-dancers Paula Wolfson; 
151-interior National Building 
Museum; 152-Capital Chil- 
dren's Museum Chip Clark; 
152-clown Paula Wolfson; 
153-children D.C. Committee 
to Promote Washington/Jim 
Marks; 1 54- 155-embassy Rob- 
ert Lautman; 156-157 D.C. 
Committee to Promote Wash- 
ington; 158 Greenhorne & 
0'Mara,Inc.; 160-161-Chesa- 
peake Bay Pamela Zilly; 
162-163-gun crew © Robert 
Llewellyn; 164-aerial Robert 
Lautman; 164-165-Liberty 
Bell George Fistrovich; 
165- Assembly Room George 
Fistrovich; 168-169 Staples & 
Charles. 



• GPO: 1988-201-939-80001 



175 



National Park Service 



The National Park Service expresses its appreciation 
to the many persons who made the preparation and 
production of this handbook possible. Countless orga- 
nizations provided us with information and photographs 
to be used in the handbook, and we thank them all. 
The Service extends a special thanks to the Parks & 
History Association, a nonprofit organization that assists 
the parks in the National Capital Region with their 
interpretive efforts, for its financial support in obtain- 
ing texts, photography, and especially the work of 
Robert and Andrew Lautman, principal photographers 
for this book. 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Washington DC: a traveler's guide to the District of 

Columbia and nearby attractions. 

(Handbook; 102) 

Supt. of Docs, no.: I 29.9/5:102 

1. Washington (D.C.) — Description — Guidebooks. 

2. Washington Region — Description and travel — 
Guidebooks. I. United States. National Park Service. 
Division of Publications. II. Series: Handbook 
(United States. National Park Service. Division of 
Publications); 102. 

F192.3.W328 1988 917.53'044 87-600287 
ISBN 0-912627-36-0 



LK§. Department of the Interior 




Clemson Universit' 




3 1604 014 689 436 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the 
Department of the Interior has responsibility for most 
of our nationally owned public lands and natural 
resources. This includes fostering the wisest use of 
our land and water resources, protecting our fish 
and wildlife, preserving the environmental and cul- 
tural values of our national parks and historical 
places, and providing for the enjoyment of life 
through outdoor recreation. The Department assesses 
our energy and mineral resources and works to as- 
sure that their development is in the best interest of 
all our people. The Department also has a major 
responsibility for American Indian reservation com- 
munities and for people who live in island territories 
under U.S. administration. 



Official National Park Guidebook 






iy^mm--"